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A Molecular Line Scan in the Hubble Deep Field North

Decarli, R. and Walter, F. and Carilli, C. and Riechers, D. and Cox, P. and Neri, R. and Aravena, M. and Bell, E. and Bertoldi, F. and Colombo, D. and da Cunha, E. and Daddi, E. and Dickinson, M. and Downes, D. and Ellis, R. S. and Lentati, L. and Maiolino, R. and Menten, K. M. and Rix, H.-W. and Sargent, M. T. and Stark, D. and Weiner, B. and Weiss, A. (2014) A Molecular Line Scan in the Hubble Deep Field North. Astrophysical Journal, 782 (2). Art. No. 78. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We present a molecular line scan in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) that covers the entire 3 mm window (79-115 GHz) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our CO redshift coverage spans z ≾ 0.45, 1 ≾ z ≾ 1.9 and all z ≳ 2. We reach a CO detection limit that is deep enough to detect essentially all z > 1 CO lines reported in the literature so far. We have developed and applied different line-searching algorithms, resulting in the discovery of 17 line candidates. We estimate that the rate of false positive line detections is ~2/17. We identify optical/NIR counterparts from the deep ancillary database of the HDF-N for seven of these candidates and investigate their available spectral energy distributions. Two secure CO detections in our scan are identified with star-forming galaxies at z = 1.784 and at z = 2.047. These galaxies have colors consistent with the "BzK" color selection and they show relatively bright CO emission compared with galaxies of similar dust continuum luminosity. We also detect two spectral lines in the submillimeter galaxy HDF 850.1 at z = 5.183. We consider an additional nine line candidates as high quality. Our observations also provide a deep 3 mm continuum map (1σ noise level = 8.6 μJy beam^(–1)). Via a stacking approach, we find that optical/MIR bright galaxies contribute only to <50% of the star formation rate density at 1 < z < 3, unless high dust temperatures are invoked. The present study represents a first, fundamental step toward an unbiased census of molecular gas in "normal" galaxies at high-z, a crucial goal of extragalactic astronomy in the ALMA era.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Decarli, R.0000-0002-2662-8803
Walter, F.0000-0003-4793-7880
Carilli, C.0000-0001-6647-3861
Riechers, D.0000-0001-9585-1462
Cox, P.0000-0003-2027-8221
Neri, R.0000-0002-7176-4046
Aravena, M.0000-0002-6290-3198
Bertoldi, F.0000-0002-1707-1775
da Cunha, E.0000-0001-9759-4797
Daddi, E.0000-0002-3331-9590
Dickinson, M.0000-0001-5414-5131
Ellis, R. S.0000-0001-7782-7071
Menten, K. M.0000-0001-6459-0669
Rix, H.-W.0000-0003-4996-9069
Sargent, M. T.0000-0003-1033-9684
Weiss, A.0000-0003-4678-3939
Additional Information:© 2014 American Astronomical Society. Received 2013 August 16; accepted 2013 December 19; published 2014 January 30. We thank the referee, S. Serjeant, for his useful comments which improved the quality of our paper. This work is based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). This research made use of Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (The Astropy Collaboration 2013). Support for RD was provided by the DFG priority program 1573 “The physics of the interstellar medium.” F.W., D.R. and E.d.C. acknowledge the Aspen Center for Physics where parts of this manuscript were written.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Institut national des sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)1573
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution; galaxies: ISM; galaxies: star formation; galaxies: statistics; instrumentation: interferometers; submillimeter: galaxies
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140519-103013082
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:A Molecular Line Scan in the Hubble Deep Field North R. Decarli et al. 2014 ApJ 782 78
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:45819
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:19 May 2014 18:08
Last Modified:21 Apr 2020 00:00

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