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Sedimentary processes at the base of a West Antarctic ice stream: Constraints from textural and compositional properties of subglacial debris

Tulaczyk, Slawek and Kamb, Barclay and Scherer, Reed P. and Engelhardt, Hermann F. (1998) Sedimentary processes at the base of a West Antarctic ice stream: Constraints from textural and compositional properties of subglacial debris. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 68 (3). pp. 487-496. ISSN 1527-1404. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140527-084602192

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Abstract

Samples of sediments from beneath Ice Stream B (at camp UpB), West Antarctica, provide the first opportunity to study the relationship between sediment properties and physical conditions in a sub-ice-stream environment. Piston coring in holes bored by hot-water drilling yielded five 1-3 m long, undisturbed subglacial sediment cores. We analyzed granulometry, composition, and particle morphology in these cores. The UpB cores are composed of a clay-rich, unsorted diamicton containing rare marine diatoms. Sedimentary particles in these cores bear no evidence of the recent crushing or abrasion that is common in other subglacial sedimentary environments. The presence of reworked diatoms and their state of preservation, as well as the relative spatial homogeneity of this diamicton, suggest that the UpB cores sampled a several-meter-thick till layer and not in situ glacimarine sediments. The till does incorporate material recycled from the subjacent poorly indurated Tertiary glacimarine sediments of the Ross Sea sedimentary basin, which extends beneath this part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. We propose that the lack of significant comminution in the UpB till is ultimately due to its setting over these easily erodible, clay-rich source sediments. The resulting fine-grained till matrix inhibits glacial comminution, because it facilitates buildup of high pore-water pressures and hinders interparticle stress concentrations. Our observations are consistent with the conjecture that subglacial deformation of weak, fine-grained tills does not produce significant comminution of till debris (Elson 1988). Based on our findings, we hypothesize that extensive layers of weak till may develop preferentially where ice overrides preexisting, poorly indurated, fine-grained sediments. Since such weak till layers create a permissive condition for ice streaming, sub-glacial geology may have an indirect but strong control over the location, extent, and basal mechanics of ice streams.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2110/jsr.68.487 DOIArticle
http://jsedres.geoscienceworld.org/content/68/3/487PublisherArticle
http://jsedres.sepmonline.org/content/68/3/487PublisherArticle
Additional Information:© 1998 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology). Received 30 July 1996; accepted 11 September 1997. This project was funded by grant OPP-9219279 from the National Science Foundation. Partial support was provided to R. Scherer by NSF grant OPP-9496169 and the Swedish Natural Science Research Council and to S. Tulaczyk by the Henry and Grazyna Bauer Fellowship. Rowena Lohman provided essential help with laboratory analyses and James Spotila and Miriam Jackson with thorough reviews of an early version of this manuscript. We thank Richard Alley, Lincoln Pratson, and an anonymous reviewer for helpful criticisms, some of which are not answered here. Contribution 8506, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFOPP-9219279
NSFOPP-9496169
Swedish Natural Science Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Henry and Grazyna Bauer FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences8506
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140527-084602192
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140527-084602192
Official Citation: Slawek Tulaczyk, Barclay Kamb, Reed P. Scherer, and Hermann F. Engelhardt Sedimentary processes at the base of a West Antarctic ice stream; constraints from textural and compositional properties of subglacial debris Journal of Sedimentary Research, , v. 68, p. 487-496, published online May 1, 1998, doi:10.2110/jsr.68.487
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:45914
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:27 May 2014 16:51
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 06:38

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