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Design and Stability of Load-Side Primary Frequency Control in Power Systems

Zhao, Changhong and Topcu, Ufuk and Li, Na and Low, Steven (2014) Design and Stability of Load-Side Primary Frequency Control in Power Systems. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 59 (5). pp. 1177-1189. ISSN 0018-9286. doi:10.1109/TAC.2014.2298140.

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We present a systematic method to design ubiquitous continuous fast-acting distributed load control for primary frequency regulation in power networks, by formulating an optimal load control (OLC) problem where the objective is to minimize the aggregate cost of tracking an operating point subject to power balance over the network. We prove that the swing dynamics and the branch power flows, coupled with frequency-based load control, serve as a distributed primal-dual algorithm to solve OLC. We establish the global asymptotic stability of a multimachine network under such type of load-side primary frequency control. These results imply that the local frequency deviations on each bus convey exactly the right information about the global power imbalance for the loads to make individual decisions that turn out to be globally optimal. Simulations confirm that the proposed algorithm can rebalance power and resynchronize bus frequencies after a disturbance with significantly improved transient performance.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Website
Zhao, Changhong0000-0003-0539-8591
Low, Steven0000-0001-6476-3048
Additional Information:© 2014 IEEE. Manuscript received May 05, 2013; revised October 24, 2013; accepted December 04, 2013. Date of publication January 09, 2014; date of current version April 18, 2014. This paper appeared in part at the Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, 2012. This work was supported by NSF CNS award 1312390, NSF NetSE grant CNS 0911041, ARPA-E grant DE-AR0000226, Southern California Edison, National Science Council of Taiwan R.O.C. grant NSC 103-3113-P-008-001, Caltech Resnick Institute, and California Energy Commission’s Small Grant Program through Grant 57360A/11-16. Recommended by Associate Editor L. Schenato. The authors would like to thank the anonymous referees for their careful reviews and valuable comments and suggestions, J. Bialek, R. Baldick, J. Lin, L. Tong, and F.Wu for very helpful discussions on the dynamic network model, L. Chen for discussions on the analytic approach, and A. Brooks, AeroVironment, for suggestions on practical issues.
Group:Resnick Sustainability Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF NetSECNS-0911041
Southern California EdisonUNSPECIFIED
National Science Council (Taipei)NSC 103-3113-P-008-001
Caltech Resnick InstituteUNSPECIFIED
California Energy Commission57360A/11-16
Subject Keywords:Decentralized control, optimization, power system control, power system dynamics.
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140529-094709292
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Changhong Zhao; Topcu, U.; Na Li; Low, S., "Design and Stability of Load-Side Primary Frequency Control in Power Systems," Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on , vol.59, no.5, pp.1177,1189, May 2014 doi: 10.1109/TAC.2014.2298140
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:45963
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:29 May 2014 17:09
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 17:18

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