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Impact of emissions from shipping, land, and the ocean on stratocumulus cloud water elemental composition during the 2011 E-PEACE field campaign

Wang, Z. and Sorooshian, A. and Prabhakar, G. and Coggon, M. M. and Jonsson, H. H. (2014) Impact of emissions from shipping, land, and the ocean on stratocumulus cloud water elemental composition during the 2011 E-PEACE field campaign. Atmospheric Environment, 89 . pp. 570-580. ISSN 1352-2310 . https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140609-134754989

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Abstract

This study reports on cloud water chemical and pH measurements off the California coast during the July–August 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE). Eighty two cloud water samples were collected by a slotted-rod cloud water collector protruding above the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter in boundary layer stratocumulus clouds impacted to varying degrees by ocean-derived emissions, ship exhaust, and land emissions. Cloud water pH ranged between 2.92 and 7.58, with an average of 4.46. Peak pH values were observed north of San Francisco, simultaneous with the highest concentrations of Si, B, and Cs, and air masses originating over land. The lowest pH values were observed south of San Francisco due to ship emissions resulting in the highest concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, V, Fe, Al, P, Cd, Ti, Sb, P, and Mn. Many of these species act as important agents in aqueous-phase reactions in cloud drops and are critical ocean micronutrients after subsequent wet deposition in an ocean system that can be nutrient-limited. E-PEACE measurements suggest that conditions in the California coastal zone region can promote the conversion of micronutrients to more soluble forms, if they are not already, due to acidic cloud water conditions, the ubiquity of important organic agents such as oxalic acid, and the persistence of stratocumulus clouds to allow for continuous cloud processing.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.01.020 DOIArticle
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014000296PublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Sorooshian, A.0000-0002-2243-2264
Coggon, M. M.0000-0002-5763-1925
Jonsson, H. H.0000-0003-3043-1074
Additional Information:© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Received 17 September 2013; Received in revised form 31 December 2013; Accepted 6 January 2014; Available online 22 January 2014. This work was funded by ONR grants N00014-11-1-0783, N00014-10-1-0200, and N00014-10-1-0811, and NSF grant AGS-1008848. We acknowledge Dean Hegg for providing the cloud water collector and Lindsay C. Maudlin for comments on the draft. The authors gratefully acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for the provision of the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model and READY website (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov) used in this publication.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Office af Naval Research (ONR)N00014-11-1-0783
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N00014-10-1-0200
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N00014-10-1-0811
NSFAGS-1008848
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140609-134754989
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140609-134754989
Official Citation:Z. Wang, A. Sorooshian, G. Prabhakar, M.M. Coggon, H.H. Jonsson, Impact of emissions from shipping, land, and the ocean on stratocumulus cloud water elemental composition during the 2011 E-PEACE field campaign, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 89, June 2014, Pages 570-580, ISSN 1352-2310, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.01.020. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014000296)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:46158
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Jun 2014 21:16
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 06:41

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