A Caltech Library Service

Electro-optical frequency division and stable microwave synthesis

Li, Jiang and Yi, Xu and Lee, Hansuek and Diddams, Scott A. and Vahala, Kerry J. (2014) Electro-optical frequency division and stable microwave synthesis. Science, 345 (6194). pp. 309-313. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.1252909.

Full text is not posted in this repository. Consult Related URLs below.

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Optical frequency division using frequency combs has revolutionized time keeping and the generation of stable microwave signals. We demonstrate optical frequency division and microwave generation by using a tunable electrical oscillator to create dual combs through phase modulation of two optical signals having a stable difference frequency. Phase-locked control of the electrical oscillator by optical frequency division produces stable microwaves. Our approach transposes the oscillator and frequency reference of a conventional microwave frequency synthesizer. In this way, the oscillator experiences large phase noise reduction relative to the frequency reference. The electro-optical approach additionally relaxes the need for highly-linear photodetection of the comb mode spacing. Besides simplicity, the technique is also tunable and scalable to higher division ratios.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription material
Yi, Xu0000-0002-2485-1104
Lee, Hansuek0000-0002-0748-7662
Diddams, Scott A.0000-0002-2144-0764
Vahala, Kerry J.0000-0003-1783-1380
Additional Information:© 2014 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Received for publication 4 March 2014. Accepted for publication 5 June 2014. Published Online June 19 2014. This work was sponsored by the DARPA ORCHID and PULSE programs and the Caltech IQIM. The authors also acknowledge support from the Kavli NanoScience Institute at Caltech. S.A.D acknowledges the support from Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation as a Moore Scholar at Caltech.
Group:Kavli Nanoscience Institute, Institute for Quantum Information and Matter
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)UNSPECIFIED
Institute for Quantum Information and Matter (IQIM)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli Nanoscience InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:6194
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140620-094300984
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:46392
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:20 Jun 2014 16:58
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 17:24

Repository Staff Only: item control page