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Removal of Stratospheric O_3 by Radicals: In Situ Measurements of OH, HO_2, NO, NO_2, CIO, AND BrO

Wennberg, P. O. and Cohen, R. C. and Stimpfle, R. M. and Koplow, J. P. and Anderson, J. G. and Salawitch, R. J. and Fahey, D. W. and Woodbridge, E. L. and Keim, E. R. and Gao, R. S. and Webster, C. R. and May, R. D. and Toohey, D. W. and Avallone, L. M. and Proffitt, M. H. and Loewenstein, M. and Podolske, J. R. and Chan, K. R. and Wofsy, S. C. (1994) Removal of Stratospheric O_3 by Radicals: In Situ Measurements of OH, HO_2, NO, NO_2, CIO, AND BrO. Science, 266 (5184). pp. 398-404. ISSN 0036-8075. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140625-105557166

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Abstract

Simultaneous in situ measurements of the concentrations of OH, HO_2, ClO, BrO, NO, and NO_2 demonstrate the predominance of odd-hydrogen and halogen free-radical catalysis in determining the rate of removal of ozone in the lower stratosphere during May 1993. A single catalytic cycle, in which the rate-limiting step is the reaction of HO_2 with ozone, accounted for nearly one-half of the total O_3 removal in this region of the atmosphere. Halogen-radical chemistry was responsible for approximately one-third of the photochemical removal of O_3; reactions involving BrO account for one-half of this loss. Catalytic destruction by NO_2, which for two decades was considered to be the predominant loss process, accounted for less than 20 percent of the O_3 removal. The measurements demonstrate quantitatively the coupling that exists between the radical families. The concentrations of HO_2 and ClO are inversely correlated with those of NO and NO_2. The direct determination of the relative importance of the catalytic loss processes, combined with a demonstration of the reactions linking the hydrogen, halogen, and nitrogen radical concentrations, shows that in the air sampled the rate of O_3 removal was inversely correlated with total NO_x, loading.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5184/398.abstractPublisherArticle
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.266.5184.398DOIArticle
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2885319JSTORArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Wennberg, P. O.0000-0002-6126-3854
Alternate Title:Removal of Stratospheric O3 by Radicals: In Situ Measurements of OH, HO2, NO, NO2, CIO, AND BrO
Additional Information:© 1994 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Received for publication 6 June 1994. Accepted for publication 1 September 1994. We thank the pilots (W. Collette, J. Barrilleaux, D. Krumrey, J. Nystrum, and R. Williams) and the ground crews of the ER-2, without whom this work would not have been possible. ER-2 flight planning by P. A. Newman and co-workers from NASA-Goddard was instrumental to the success of SPADE. The TOMS UV reflectivity is produced by R. D. McPeters and co-workers of the NASA-Goddard ozone processing team; L. Pfister at NASA-Ames was responsible for interpolating this data onto the ER-2 flight track. New instrumentation for OH and HO_2 was developed in part by N. L. Hazen, L. B. Lapson, N. T. Allen, J. F. Oliver, N. W. Lanham, J. N. Demusz, E. E. Thompson, T. L. Martin, E. M. Weinstock, and A. E. Dessler at Harvard University. Interface with the ER-2 was supported by H. Kent, G. Prince, and R. York, at Lockheed; their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. Program support at NASA-Ames by J. C. Arveson, J. L. Barrilleaux, E. Condon, S. Wegner, and S. Hipskind is acknowledged. Finally, this work was supported by the NASA High Speed Research Program, under the direction of H. L. Wesoky, R. S. Stolarski, and M. J. Prather. Additional support for the HO, instrument development came from the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Program, under the direction of M. J. Kurylo.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Lockheed Corp.UNSPECIFIED
NASAUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140625-105557166
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140625-105557166
Official Citation:Removal of Stratospheric O3 by Radicals: In Situ Measurements of OH, HO2, NO, NO2, ClO, and BrO P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, J. G. Anderson, R. J. Salawitch, D. W. Fahey, E. L. Woodbridge, E. R. Keim, R. S. Gao, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, and S. C. Wofsy Science 21 October 1994: 266 (5184), 398-404. [DOI:10.1126/science.266.5184.398
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:46502
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:25 Jun 2014 20:46
Last Modified:07 Apr 2017 03:23

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