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Emissions of organic carbon and methane from petroleum and dairy operations in California's San Joaquin Valley

Gentner, D. R. and Ford, T. B. and Guha, A. and Boulanger, K. and Brioude, J. and Angevine, W. M. and de Gouw, J. A. and Warneke, C. and Gilman, J. B. and Ryerson, T. B. and Peischl, J. and Meinardi, S. and Blake, D. R. and Atlas, E. and Lonneman, W. A. and Kleindienst, T. E. and Beaver, M. R. and St. Clair, J. M. and Wennberg, P. O. and VandenBoer, T. C. and Markovic, M. Z. and Murphy, J. G. and Harley, R. A. and Goldstein, A. H. (2014) Emissions of organic carbon and methane from petroleum and dairy operations in California's San Joaquin Valley. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14 (10). pp. 4955-4978. ISSN 1680-7316. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140627-113643559

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Abstract

Petroleum and dairy operations are prominent sources of gas-phase organic compounds in California's San Joaquin Valley. It is essential to understand the emissions and air quality impacts of these relatively understudied sources, especially for oil/gas operations in light of increasing US production. Ground site measurements in Bakersfield and regional aircraft measurements of reactive gas-phase organic compounds and methane were part of the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) project to determine the sources contributing to regional gas-phase organic carbon emissions. Using a combination of near-source and downwind data, we assess the composition and magnitude of emissions, and provide average source profiles. To examine the spatial distribution of emissions in the San Joaquin Valley, we developed a statistical modeling method using ground-based data and the FLEXPART-WRF transport and meteorological model. We present evidence for large sources of paraffinic hydrocarbons from petroleum operations and oxygenated compounds from dairy (and other cattle) operations. In addition to the small straight-chain alkanes typically associated with petroleum operations, we observed a wide range of branched and cyclic alkanes, most of which have limited previous in situ measurements or characterization in petroleum operation emissions. Observed dairy emissions were dominated by ethanol, methanol, acetic acid, and methane. Dairy operations were responsible for the vast majority of methane emissions in the San Joaquin Valley; observations of methane were well correlated with non-vehicular ethanol, and multiple assessments of the spatial distribution of emissions in the San Joaquin Valley highlight the dominance of dairy operations for methane emissions. The petroleum operations source profile was developed using the composition of non-methane hydrocarbons in unrefined natural gas associated with crude oil. The observed source profile is consistent with fugitive emissions of condensate during storage or processing of associated gas following extraction and methane separation. Aircraft observations of concentration hotspots near oil wells and dairies are consistent with the statistical source footprint determined via our FLEXPART-WRF-based modeling method and ground-based data. We quantitatively compared our observations at Bakersfield to the California Air Resources Board emission inventory and find consistency for relative emission rates of reactive organic gases between the aforementioned sources and motor vehicles in the region. We estimate that petroleum and dairy operations each comprised 22% of anthropogenic non-methane organic carbon at Bakersfield and were each responsible for 8–13% of potential precursors to ozone. Yet, their direct impacts as potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors were estimated to be minor for the source profiles observed in the San Joaquin Valley.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-4955-2014DOIArticle
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/4955/2014/acp-14-4955-2014.htmlPublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Kleindienst, T. E.0000-0002-3024-1564
Wennberg, P. O.0000-0002-6126-3854
Additional Information:© 2014 Author(s). This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. Received: 10 September 2013. Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 31 October 2013. Revised: 28 March 2014. Accepted: 1 April 2014. Published: 21 May 2014. For their support, we would like to acknowledge the California Air Resources Board (Contract 08-316), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (GRANT #NA10OAR4310104), and the U.C. Berkeley undergraduate chemistry summer research fellowship. We would also like to thank Joe Fisher and Jim Nyarady (CARB), Jason Surratt and Caitlin Rubitschun (U. North Carolina, Chapel Hill), and John Offenberg (US EPA) for their contributions and feedback. The US Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development collaborated in the research described here. The manuscript has been subjected to external peer review and has been cleared for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. Edited by: A. Carlton
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
California Air Resources Board08-316
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)NA10OAR4310104
U.C. Berkeley undergraduate chemistry summer research fellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140627-113643559
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140627-113643559
Official Citation:Gentner, D. R., Ford, T. B., Guha, A., Boulanger, K., Brioude, J., Angevine, W. M., de Gouw, J. A., Warneke, C., Gilman, J. B., Ryerson, T. B., Peischl, J., Meinardi, S., Blake, D. R., Atlas, E., Lonneman, W. A., Kleindienst, T. E., Beaver, M. R., Clair, J. M. St., Wennberg, P. O., VandenBoer, T. C., Markovic, M. Z., Murphy, J. G., Harley, R. A., and Goldstein, A. H.: Emissions of organic carbon and methane from petroleum and dairy operations in California's San Joaquin Valley, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4955-4978, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4955-2014, 2014.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:46554
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:27 Jun 2014 22:40
Last Modified:26 Apr 2017 17:40

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