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Hydrogen Radicals, Nitrogen Radicals, and the Production of O_3 in the Upper Troposphere

Wennberg, P. O. and Hanisco, T. F. and Jaeglé, L. and Jacob, D. J. and Hintsa, E. J. and Lanzendorf, E. J. and Anderson, J. G. and Gao, R.-S. and Keim, E. R. and Donnelly, S. G. and Del Negro, L. A. and Fahey, D. W. and McKeen, S. A. and Salawitch, R. J. and Webster, C. R. and May, R. D. and Herman, R. L. and Proffitt, M. H. and Margitan, J. J. and Atlas, E. L. and Schauffler, S. M. and Flocke, F. and McElroy, C. T. and Bui, T. P. (1998) Hydrogen Radicals, Nitrogen Radicals, and the Production of O_3 in the Upper Troposphere. Science, 279 (5347). pp. 49-53. ISSN 0036-8075. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140630-134403656

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Abstract

The concentrations of the hydrogen radicals OH and HO2in the middle and upper troposphere were measured simultaneously with those of NO, O_3, CO, H_(2)O, CH_4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and with the ultraviolet and visible radiation field. The data allow a direct examination of the processes that produce O_3 in this region of the atmosphere. Comparison of the measured concentrations of OH and HO_2 with calculations based on their production from water vapor, ozone, and methane demonstrate that these sources are insufficient to explain the observed radical concentrations in the upper troposphere. The photolysis of carbonyl and peroxide compounds transported to this region from the lower troposphere may provide the source of HO_x required to sustain the measured abundances of these radical species. The mechanism by which NO affects the production of O_3 is also illustrated by the measurements. In the upper tropospheric air masses sampled, the production rate for ozone (determined from the measured concentrations of HO_2 and NO) is calculated to be about 1 part per billion by volume each day. This production rate is faster than previously thought and implies that anthropogenic activities that add NO to the upper troposphere, such as biomass burning and aviation, will lead to production of more O_3 than expected.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.279.5347.49 DOIArticle
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/279/5347/49PublisherArticle
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2894394JSTORArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Wennberg, P. O.0000-0002-6126-3854
Additional Information:© 1998 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Received 15 October 1997; accepted 18 November 1997. We thank the pilots and ground crew of the NASA ER-2 Aircraft, and the STRAT mission scientists (S. Wofsy, Harvard University, and P. Newman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) for their help obtaining this data set. K. Wolfe, J. Barrilleaux, E. Condon, S. Hipskind, M. Craig, S. Gaines, J. Goosby, and O. Allison provided logistical support for this field effort. We acknowledge R. Lueb, V. Stroud, and H. Krapfl for assistance with the whole-air sampler data set. A portion of the research described in this paper was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Partial support for analysis of the STRAT data set was provided by a grant from the National Science Foundation (ATM 9612282). The STRAT program was supported by NASA through the Upper Atmosphere Research Program, the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program, and by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project. We thank the officers of these programs, M. Kurylo, H. Wesoky, J. Kaye, R. Friedl, R. Kawa, D. Peterson, and P. DeCola, for support.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFATM-9612282
NASAUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140630-134403656
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140630-134403656
Official Citation:Wennberg, P. O., Hanisco, T. F., Jaeglé, L., Jacob, D. J., Hintsa, E. J., Lanzendorf, E. J., . . . Bui, T. P. (1998). Hydrogen Radicals, Nitrogen Radicals, and the Production of O3 in the Upper Troposphere. Science, 279(5347), 49-53. doi: 10.1126/science.279.5347.49
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:46577
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:30 Jun 2014 22:14
Last Modified:07 Apr 2017 03:08

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