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Inferring the direction of implied motion depends on visual awareness

Faivre, Nathan and Koch, Christof (2014) Inferring the direction of implied motion depends on visual awareness. Journal of Vision, 14 (4). Art. No. 4. ISSN 1534-7362. PMCID PMC3977435. doi:10.1167/14.4.4.

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Visual awareness of an event, object, or scene is, by essence, an integrated experience, whereby different visual features composing an object (e.g., orientation, color, shape) appear as an unified percept and are processed as a whole. Here, we tested in human observers whether perceptual integration of static motion cues depends on awareness by measuring the capacity to infer the direction of motion implied by a static visible or invisible image under continuous flash suppression. Using measures of directional adaptation, we found that visible but not invisible implied motion adaptors biased the perception of real motion probes. In a control experiment, we found that invisible adaptors implying motion primed the perception of subsequent probes when they were identical (i.e., repetition priming), but not when they only shared the same direction (i.e., direction priming). Furthermore, using a model of visual processing, we argue that repetition priming effects are likely to arise as early as in the primary visual cortex. We conclude that although invisible images implying motion undergo some form of nonconscious processing, visual awareness is necessary to make inferences about motion direction.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription DOIArticle CentralArticle
Faivre, Nathan0000-0001-6011-4921
Koch, Christof0000-0001-6482-8067
Additional Information:© 2014 ARVO. Received October 20, 2013; published April 4, 2014. Published online Apr 4, 2014. This research was supported by G. Harold & Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation. N. F. was supported by the Fyssen Foundation. The authors thank two anonymous referees for their helpful comments. The authors are very grateful to Jonathan Winawer and Lera Boroditsky for providing their stimulation code and implied motion stimuli, to Julien Dubois for his help with the V1 model, Hui Liu for her technical assistance, and Liad Mudrik for her comments on the manuscript. Commercial relationships: none. Corresponding author: Nathan Faivre.
Group:Koch Laboratory (KLAB)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Charitable FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Fyssen FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:awareness; consciousness; implied motion; continuous flash suppression; priming
Issue or Number:4
PubMed Central ID:PMC3977435
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140710-110058888
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Faivre, N., & Koch, C. (2014). Inferring the direction of implied motion depends on visual awareness. Journal of Vision, 14(4):4, 1–14,, doi:10.1167/14.4.4
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:47141
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:10 Jul 2014 19:24
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 17:35

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