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Interaction-powered Supernovae: Rise-time versus Peak-luminosity Correlation and the Shock-breakout Velocity

Ofek, Eran O. and Arcavi, Iair and Tal, David and Sullivan, Mark and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Nugent, Peter E. and Ben-Ami, Sagi and Bersier, David and Cao, Yi and Cenko, S. Bradley and De Cia, Annalisa and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Fransson, Claes and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Laher, Russ R. and Surace, Jason and Quimby, Robert M. and Yaron, Ofer (2014) Interaction-powered Supernovae: Rise-time versus Peak-luminosity Correlation and the Shock-breakout Velocity. Astrophysical Journal, 788 (2). Art. No. 154. ISSN 0004-637X.

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Interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with the optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) of a progenitor star can result in a bright, long-lived shock-breakout event. Candidates for such SNe include Type IIn and superluminous SNe. If some of these SNe are powered by interaction, then there should be a specific relation between their peak luminosity, bolometric light-curve rise time, and shock-breakout velocity. Given that the shock velocity during shock breakout is not measured, we expect a correlation, with a significant spread, between the rise time and the peak luminosity of these SNe. Here, we present a sample of 15 SNe IIn for which we have good constraints on their rise time and peak luminosity from observations obtained using the Palomar Transient Factory. We report on a possible correlation between the R-band rise time and peak luminosity of these SNe, with a false-alarm probability of 3%. Assuming that these SNe are powered by interaction, combining these observables and theory allows us to deduce lower limits on the shock-breakout velocity. The lower limits on the shock velocity we find are consistent with what is expected for SNe (i.e., ~10^(4) km s^(–1)). This supports the suggestion that the early-time light curves of SNe IIn are caused by shock breakout in a dense CSM. We note that such a correlation can arise from other physical mechanisms. Performing such a test on other classes of SNe (e.g., superluminous SNe) can be used to rule out the interaction model for a class of events.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Arcavi, Iair0000-0001-7090-4898
Sullivan, Mark0000-0001-9053-4820
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Nugent, Peter E.0000-0002-3389-0586
Ben-Ami, Sagi0000-0001-6760-3074
Cao, Yi0000-0002-8036-8491
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
De Cia, Annalisa0000-0003-2082-1626
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Fransson, Claes0000-0001-8532-3594
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Laher, Russ R.0000-0003-2451-5482
Surace, Jason0000-0001-7291-0087
Quimby, Robert M.0000-0001-9171-5236
Yaron, Ofer0000-0002-0301-8017
Additional Information:© 2014 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2014 February 27; accepted 2014 April 15; published 2014 June 3. We thank Dan Perley for obtaining some spectra. E.O.O. thanks Ehud Nakar and Orly Gnat for discussions. This paper is based on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope as part of the Palomar Transient Factory project, a scientific collaboration between the California Institute of Technology, Columbia University, Las Cumbres Observatory, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, the University of Oxford, and the Weizmann Institute of Science. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at theW. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA; the Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We are grateful for excellent staff assistance at Palomar, Lick, and Keck Observatories. E.O.O. is incumbent of the Arye Dissentshik career development chair and is grateful to support by grants from the Willner Family Leadership Institute Ilan Gluzman (Secaucus NJ), IsraeliMinistry of Science, Israel Science Foundation, Minerva, Weizmann-UK and the I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and The Israel Science Foundation. A.G-Y. acknowledge grants from the ISF, BSF, GIF, Minerva, the EU/FP7 via ERC grant (307260), and the I-CORE program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and The Israel Science Foundation. M.M.K. acknowledges generous support from the Hubble Fellowship and Carnegie-Princeton Fellowship. A.V.F.’s SN group at UC Berkeley has received generous financial assistance from Gary and CynthiaBengier, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, and NSF grant AST-1211916.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Palomar Transient Factory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Willner Family Leadership Institute Ilan Gluzman (Secaucus NJ)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting CommitteeUNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)307260
Carnegie-Princeton FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Gary and Cynthia BengierUNSPECIFIED
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Richard and Rhoda Goldman FundUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:stars: massive; stars: mass-loss; supernovae: general
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140717-092439857
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Interaction-powered Supernovae: Rise-time versus Peak-luminosity Correlation and the Shock-breakout Velocity Eran O. Ofek et al. 2014 ApJ 788 154
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:47289
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:17 Jul 2014 18:43
Last Modified:22 Nov 2019 20:46

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