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Review of data on Eolian fluxes of industrial and natural lead to the lands and seas in remote regions on a global scale

Patterson, C. C. and Settle, D. M. (1987) Review of data on Eolian fluxes of industrial and natural lead to the lands and seas in remote regions on a global scale. Marine Chemistry, 22 (2-4). pp. 137-162. ISSN 0304-4203. doi:10.1016/0304-4203(87)90005-3.

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During preindustrial times about half the lead in the troposphere came from soil dusts while the remainder came from volcanic gases. Today the proportion of this natural lead in the atmosphere is overwhelmed by industrial lead emitted from smelters and automobile exhausts. In the Antarctic tropospheric cell, atmospheric concentrations of industrial lead are five-fold greater than natural lead concentrations, while in urban atmospheres the proportions of industrial lead are more than 10 000-fold greater than those of natural lead. About 90% of industrial lead emissions to the global atmosphere are introduced into the Northern hemisphere westerlies from North America, Europe and Japan, with most of the remainder being introduced into the Southern hemisphere westerlies from Brazil, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. This creates a north-south gradient in global atmospheric lead concentrations across meridional tropospheric circulation cells because their convergence barriers restrict latitudinal mixing. Atmospheric lead concentrations in a pole-to-pole strip across the central Pacific show a decline in lead within meridional cells on either side of the Northern westerlies. This hemispheric set contains higher lead concentrations on the whole than does the corresponding set of meridional cells in the Southern hemisphere, because of the isolating effect of the equatorial mixing barrier. In the Southern hemisphere the westerlies cell again contains higher lead concentrations than do adjacent meridional cells, with the Antarctic cell being the least lead polluted portion of the Earth's atmosphere. Tabulations of eolian input fluxes of lead from these atmospheric reservoirs to the Earth's surface for remote regions are given in this review, as well as methods for estimating the proportions of natural and industrial lead in soil dust, sea salt, volcanic sulfate and anthropogenic particles in air and rain.

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Additional Information:© 1987 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Received December 5, 1986; revision accepted June 1, 1987. This work was supported by NSF DPP 84-03490, NSF OCE 84-04559, and NSF DEB 7911548. Contribution No. 4543, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology. We thank the Caltech graduate students, Post Doctoral Fellows, and Visiting Research Associates whose cooperative efforts made this work possible. Their names and contributions are cited in the references. We are indebted to colleagues from other universities, also listed in the references, who participated in field operations associated with this work and evaluation of results.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFDPP 84-03490
NSFOCE 84-04559
NSFDEB 7911548
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Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences4543
Issue or Number:2-4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140812-114941557
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Official Citation:Patterson, C. C., & Settle, D. M. (1987). Review of data on eolian fluxes of industrial and natural lead to the lands and seas in remote regions on a global scale. Marine Chemistry, 22(2–4), 137-162. doi:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:48384
Deposited On:12 Aug 2014 19:04
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 18:31

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