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A Far-IR View of the Starburst-driven Superwind in NGC 2146

Kreckel, K. and Armus, L. and Groves, B. and Lyubenova, M. and Díaz-Santos, T. and Schinnerer, E. and Appleton, P. and Croxall, K. V. and Dale, D. A. and Hunt, L. K. and Beirão, P. and Bolatto, A. D. and Calzetti, D. and Donovan Meyer, J. and Draine, B. T. and Hinz, J. and Kennicutt, R. C. and Meidt, S. and Murphy, E. J. and Smith, J. D. T. and Tabatabaei, F. S. and Walter, F. (2014) A Far-IR View of the Starburst-driven Superwind in NGC 2146. Astrophysical Journal, 790 (1). Art. No. 26. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/26.

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NGC 2146, a nearby luminous infrared galaxy, presents evidence for outflows along the disk minor axis in all gas phases (ionized, neutral atomic, and molecular). We present an analysis of the multi-phase, starburst-driven superwind in the central 5 kpc as traced in spatially resolved spectral line observations, using far-IR Herschel PACS spectroscopy, to probe the effects on the atomic and ionized gas, and optical integral field spectroscopy to examine the ionized gas through diagnostic line ratios. We observe an increased ~250 km s^(–1) velocity dispersion in the [O I] 63 μm, [O III] 88 μm, [N II] 122 μm, and [C II] 158 μm fine-structure lines that is spatially coincident with high excitation gas above and below the disk. We model this with a slow ~200 km s^(–1) shock and trace the superwind to the edge of our field of view 2.5 kpc above the disk. We present new SOFIA 37 μm observations to explore the warm dust distribution, and detect no clear dust entrainment in the outflow. The stellar kinematics appear decoupled from the regular disk rotation seen in all gas phases, consistent with a recent merger event disrupting the system. We consider the role of the superwind in the evolution of NGC 2146 and speculate on the evolutionary future of the system. Our observations of NGC 2146 in the far-IR allow an unobscured view of the wind, crucial for tracing the superwind to the launching region at the disk center, and provide a local analog for future ALMA observations of outflows in high-redshift systems.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Kreckel, K.0000-0001-6551-3091
Armus, L.0000-0003-3498-2973
Groves, B.0000-0002-9768-0246
Díaz-Santos, T.0000-0003-0699-6083
Schinnerer, E.0000-0002-3933-7677
Appleton, P.0000-0002-7607-8766
Croxall, K. V.0000-0002-5258-7224
Dale, D. A.0000-0002-5782-9093
Hunt, L. K.0000-0001-9162-2371
Bolatto, A. D.0000-0002-5480-5686
Calzetti, D.0000-0002-5189-8004
Donovan Meyer, J.0000-0002-3106-7676
Draine, B. T.0000-0002-0846-936X
Kennicutt, R. C.0000-0001-5448-1821
Meidt, S.0000-0002-6118-4048
Murphy, E. J.0000-0001-7089-7325
Smith, J. D. T.0000-0003-1545-5078
Walter, F.0000-0003-4793-7880
Additional Information:© 2014 American Astronomical Society. Received 2014 February 19; accepted 2014 May 4; published 2014 June 30. We thank the referee for helpful comments. K.K. acknowledges the support of grants GR 3948/1-1 and SCHI 536/8-1 from the DFG Priority Program 1573, “The Physics of the Interstellar Medium.” A.D.B. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation through grant AST-0955836, as well as a Cottrell Scholar award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation Operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. F.T. acknowledges the DFG grant TA 801/1-1. This work is based on observations made with Herschel. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. PACS has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by MPE (Germany) and including UVIE (Austria); KU Leuven, CSL, IMEC (Belgium); CEA, LAM (France); MPIA (Germany); INAF-IFSI/OAA/OAP/OAT, LENS, SISSA (Italy); IAC (Spain). This development has been supported by the funding agencies BMVIT (Austria), ESA-PRODEX (Belgium), CEA/CNES (France), DLR (Germany), ASI/INAF (Italy), and CICYT/MCYT (Spain). Based in part on observations collected at the Centro Astronόmico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC). Based in part on observations made with the NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). SOFIA is jointly operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart. This research made use of APLpy, an open-source plotting package for Python hosted at
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Cottrell Scholar of Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)TA 801/1-1
Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie (BMVIT)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Deutschen Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI)DLR 50 OK 0901
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:dust, extinction; galaxies: individual (NGC 2146); galaxies: starburst; infrared: ISM; ISM: kinematics and dynamics
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140814-152348037
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:A Far-IR View of the Starburst-driven Superwind in NGC 2146 K. Kreckel et al. 2014 ApJ 790 26
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:48577
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:27 Aug 2014 21:25
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 18:33

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