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On the Mechanism of Cavitation Damage

Plesset, M. S. and Ellis, A. T. (1955) On the Mechanism of Cavitation Damage. Transactions of the ASME, 77 . pp. 1055-1064.

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A new method for producing cavitation damage in the laboratory is described in which the test specimen has no mechanical accelerations applied to it in contrast with the conventional magnetostriction device. Alternating pressures are generated in the water over the specimen by exciting a resonance in the "water cavity." By this means the effects of cavitation have been studied for a variety of materials. Photomicrographs have been taken of several ordinary (polycrystalline) specimens and also of zinc monocrystals. The zinc monocrystal has been exposed to cavitation damage on its basal plane and also on its twinning plane. X-ray analyses have been made of polycrystalline specimens with various exposures to cavitation. The results show that plastic deformation occurs in the specimens so that the damage results from cold-work of the material which leads to fatigue and failure. A variety of materials has been exposed to intense cavitation for extended periods to get a relative determination of their resistance to cavitation damage. It is found that, roughly speaking, hard materials of high tensile strengths are the most resistant to damage. While this survey is not complete, it has been found that titanium 150-A and tungsten are the most resistant to damage of the materials tested. Cavitation-damage studies, which have been carried out in liquid toluene and in a helium atmosphere, show that chemical effects can be, at most, of secondary significance.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:©ASME 1955. Contributed by the Hydraulic Division and presented at the Annual Meeting, New York, N.Y., November 28-December 3, 1954, of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Manuscript received at ASME Headquarters, August 11, 1954. Paper No. 54-A-76. This study was supported by the U. S. Navy Office of Naval Research, Mechanics Branch. The authors wish to express their appreciation to Mr. J. E. Neimark for valuable assistance with the observations on zinc monocrystals. The authors are also greatly indebted to Profs. Pol Duwez and David Wood of the Engineering Division of the California Institute of Technology, not only for making facilities available to them but also for their helpful interest and comments throughout the study.
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Office of Naval Research (ONR)UNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140826-140952946
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ID Code:48937
Deposited On:26 Aug 2014 21:19
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 07:09

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