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P-wave complexity and fault asperities: The Borrego Mountain, California, earthquake of 1968

Ebel, John E. and Helmberger, Donald V. (1982) P-wave complexity and fault asperities: The Borrego Mountain, California, earthquake of 1968. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 72 (2). pp. 413-437. ISSN 0037-1106. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140902-135344882

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Abstract

Results from a synthetic seismogram analysis of the short-period P waves from the Borrego Mountain earthquake of 9 April 1968 (M_L = 6.4) are used to model the strong-motion recording at El Centro. A short-period-long-period deconvolution analysis of the teleseismic P waves suggested that a two-source model would fit the data much better than the single-source model presented by Burdick and Mellman (1976). Forward and inverse modeling of the data demonstrated that two sources, each of less than 2-sec duration, the second occurring 2.2 sec after the first and both being at about 8-km depth, best fit the short-period waveforms. From this model, long-period synthetics were generated which were found to be quite compatible with the data. This source model was also used to synthesize the strong-motion SH displacement, velocity, and acceleration records from El Centro, California. The close match of synthetics and data is used to argue that short-period waveforms contain much information about asperities which play a crucial role in the near-source strong motions from an earthquake. The Borrego Mountain event probably began with the failure of a fault asperity. The evidence for this is the several-hundred-bars stress drops of the two short-period sources and the probable location of these sources in a place where there was almost no aftershock activity or postseismic creep on the fault.


Item Type:Article
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http://bssa.geoscienceworld.org/content/72/2/413.abstractPublisherArticle
Additional Information:© 1982, by the Seismological Society of America. Manuscript received 13 November 1980. Special thanks must be made to several people for their assistance with this study. Gladys Engen ran much of the analysis on the strong-motion data and was responsible for finding the fits to the acceleration record. George Mellman kindly provided his inversion program and made up for the lack of written comments m the program with oral instructions about its inner workings. Dave Boore and Allen Olsen reviewed the manuscript, and their comments prompted some unexpected improvements m the analysis. Joe Galvan and Laszlo Lenches helped prepare the figures. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PFR-7921769 and also by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense and was monitored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract F49620-81-C-0008.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFPFR-7921769
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)UNSPECIFIED
Air Force Office of Scientific ResearchF49620-81-C-0008
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Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences3523
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140902-135344882
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140902-135344882
Official Citation: John E. Ebel and Donald V. Helmberger P-wave complexity and fault asperities: The Borrego Mountain, California, earthquake of 1968 Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, April 1982, v. 72, p. 413-437
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:49129
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:02 Sep 2014 21:57
Last Modified:02 Sep 2014 21:57

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