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The NuSTAR spectrum of Mrk 335: extreme relativistic effects within two gravitational radii of the event horizon?

Parker, M. L. and Wilkins, D. R. and Fabian, A. C. and Grupe, D. and Dauser, T. and Matt, G. and Harrison, F. A. and Brenneman, L. and Boggs, S. E. and Christensen, F. E. and Craig, W. W. and Gallo, L. C. and Hailey, C. J. and Kara, E. and Komossa, S. and Marinucci, A. and Miller, J. M. and Risaliti, G. and Stern, D. and Walton, D. J. and Zhang, W. W. (2014) The NuSTAR spectrum of Mrk 335: extreme relativistic effects within two gravitational radii of the event horizon? Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 443 (2). pp. 1723-1732. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stu1246.

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We present 3–50 keV NuSTAR observations of the active galactic nuclei Mrk 335 in a very low flux state. The spectrum is dominated by very strong features at the energies of the iron line at 5–7 keV and Compton hump from 10–30 keV. The source is variable during the observation, with the variability concentrated at low energies, which suggesting either a relativistic reflection or a variable absorption scenario. In this work, we focus on the reflection interpretation, making use of new relativistic reflection models that self consistently calculate the reflection fraction, relativistic blurring and angle-dependent reflection spectrum for different coronal heights to model the spectra. We find that the spectra can be well fitted with relativistic reflection, and that the lowest flux state spectrum is described by reflection alone, suggesting the effects of extreme light-bending occurring within ∼2 gravitational radii (R_G) of the event horizon. The reflection fraction decreases sharply with increasing flux, consistent with a point source moving up to above 10 R_G as the source brightens. We constrain the spin parameter to greater than 0.9 at the 3σ confidence level. By adding a spin-dependent upper limit on the reflection fraction to our models, we demonstrate that this can be a powerful way of constraining the spin parameter, particularly in reflection dominated states. We also calculate a detailed emissivity profile for the iron line, and find that it closely matches theoretical predictions for a compact source within a few R_G of the black hole.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Parker, M. L.0000-0002-8466-7317
Fabian, A. C.0000-0002-9378-4072
Grupe, D.0000-0002-9961-3661
Dauser, T.0000-0003-4583-9048
Matt, G.0000-0002-2152-0916
Harrison, F. A.0000-0003-2992-8024
Boggs, S. E.0000-0001-9567-4224
Christensen, F. E.0000-0001-5679-1946
Kara, E.0000-0003-0172-0854
Stern, D.0000-0003-2686-9241
Walton, D. J.0000-0001-5819-3552
Zhang, W. W.0000-0002-1426-9698
Alternate Title:The NuSTAR spectrum of Mrk 335: Extreme relativistic effects within 2 gravitational radii of the event horizon?
Additional Information:© 2014 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2014 June 20. Received 2014 June 10; in original form 2013 October 17. First published online July 25, 2014. This work is based on observations made by the NuSTAR mission, a project led by the California Institute of Astronomy, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and funded by NASA. This research has made use of the NUSTARDAS, jointly developed by the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC, Italy) and the California Institute of Technology (USA). At Penn State Swift is supported by NASA contract NAS5-00136. MLP acknowledges financial support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). ACF thanks the Royal Society for support. AM and GM acknowledge financial support from Italian Space Agency under grant ASI/INAF I/037/12/0-011/13. DRW is supported by a CITA National Fellowship. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 312789.
Group:NuSTAR, Space Radiation Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)ASI/INAF I/037/ 12/0-011/13
CITA National FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)312789
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: active, galaxies: individual: Mrk 335, galaxies: Seyfert
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Space Radiation Laboratory2014-32
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140912-074949567
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:M. L. Parker, D. R. Wilkins, A. C. Fabian, D. Grupe, T. Dauser, G. Matt, F. A. Harrison, L. Brenneman, S. E. Boggs, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, L. C. Gallo, C. J. Hailey, E. Kara, S. Komossa, A. Marinucci, J. M. Miller, G. Risaliti, D. Stern, D. J. Walton, and W. W. Zhang The NuSTAR spectrum of Mrk 335: extreme relativistic effects within two gravitational radii of the event horizon? MNRAS (September 11, 2014) Vol. 443 1723-1732 doi:10.1093/mnras/stu1246 First published online July 25, 2014
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:49632
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:12 Sep 2014 20:09
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 18:46

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