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Stabilization of n-cadmium telluride photoanodes for water oxidation to O_2(g) in aqueous alkaline electrolytes using amorphous TiO_2 films formed by atomic-layer deposition

Lichterman, Michael F. and Carim, Azhar I. and McDowell, Matthew T. and Hu, Shu and Gray, Harry B. and Brunschwig, Bruce S. and Lewis, Nathan S. (2014) Stabilization of n-cadmium telluride photoanodes for water oxidation to O_2(g) in aqueous alkaline electrolytes using amorphous TiO_2 films formed by atomic-layer deposition. Energy and Environmental Science, 7 (10). pp. 3334-3337. ISSN 1754-5692. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140915-092918358

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Abstract

Although II–VI semiconductors such as CdS, CdTe, CdSe, ZnTe, and alloys thereof can have nearly ideal band gaps and band-edge positions for the production of solar fuels, II–VI photoanodes are well-known to be unstable towards photocorrosion or photopassivation when in contact with aqueous electrolytes. Atomic-layer deposition (ALD) of amorphous, “leaky” TiO_2 films coated with thin films or islands of Ni oxide has been shown to robustly protect Si, GaAs, and other III–V materials from photocorrosion and therefore to facilitate the robust, solar-driven photoelectrochemical oxidation of H_2O to O_2(g). We demonstrate herein that ALD-deposited 140 nm thick amorphous TiO_2 films also effectively protect single crystalline n-CdTe photoanodes from corrosion or passivation. An n-CdTe/TiO_2 electrode with a thin overlayer of a Ni-oxide based oxygen-evolution electrocatalyst produced 435 ± 15 mV of photovoltage with a light-limited current density of 21 ± 1 mA cm^−2 under 100 mW cm^−2 of simulated Air Mass 1.5 illumination. The ALD-deposited TiO_2 films are highly optically transparent and electrically conductive. We show that an n-CdTe/TiO_2/Ni oxide electrode enables the stable solar-driven oxidation of H_2O to O_2(g) in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions, where passive, intrinsically safe, efficient systems for solar-driven water splitting can be operated.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4EE01914H DOIArticle
http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2014/EE/C4EE01914HPublisherArticle
http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/ee/c4/c4ee01914h/c4ee01914h1.pdfPublisherSupplementary Information
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Lichterman, Michael F.0000-0002-0710-7068
Carim, Azhar I.0000-0003-3630-6872
Hu, Shu0000-0002-5041-0169
Gray, Harry B.0000-0002-7937-7876
Brunschwig, Bruce S.0000-0002-6135-6727
Lewis, Nathan S.0000-0001-5245-0538
Alternate Title:Stabilization of n-cadmium telluride photoanodes for water oxidation to O2(g) in aqueous alkaline electrolytes using amorphous TiO2 films formed by atomic-layer deposition
Additional Information:© 2014 Royal Society of Chemistry. Received 20th June 2014; accepted 21st August 2014. First published online 22 Aug 2014. This material is based upon work performed by the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, supported through the Office of Science of the U. S. Department of Energy under Award Number DE-SC0004993. The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr Ke Sun for insightful discussions and Dr Slobodan Mitrovic for assistance collecting XPS data. AIC is grateful to the National Science Foundation for support from an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship. BSB and HBG acknowledge the Beckman Institute Materials and Laser Resource Centers and NSF CHE-1305124 for support.
Group:JCAP
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0004993
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Caltech Beckman InstituteUNSPECIFIED
NSFCHE-1305124
Issue or Number:10
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20140915-092918358
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20140915-092918358
Official Citation:Lichterman, M. F., Carim, A. I., McDowell, M. T., Hu, S., Gray, H. B., Brunschwig, B. S., & Lewis, N. S. (2014). Stabilization of n-cadmium telluride photoanodes for water oxidation to O2(g) in aqueous alkaline electrolytes using amorphous TiO2 films formed by atomic-layer deposition. [10.1039/C4EE01914H]. Energy & Environmental Science. doi: 10.1039/c4ee01914h
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:49692
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:15 Sep 2014 17:28
Last Modified:09 Oct 2019 04:11

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