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Multisensory Integration in Complete Unawareness: Evidence From Audiovisual Congruency Priming

Faivre, Nathan and Mudrik, Liad and Schwartz, Naama and Koch, Christof (2014) Multisensory Integration in Complete Unawareness: Evidence From Audiovisual Congruency Priming. Psychological Science, 25 (11). pp. 2006-2016. ISSN 0956-7976.

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Multisensory integration is thought to require conscious perception. Although previous studies have shown that an invisible stimulus could be integrated with an audible one, none have demonstrated integration of two subliminal stimuli of different modalities. Here, pairs of identical or different audiovisual target letters (the sound /b/ with the written letter “b” or “m,” respectively) were preceded by pairs of masked identical or different audiovisual prime digits (the sound /6/ with the written digit “6” or “8,” respectively). In three experiments, awareness of the audiovisual digit primes was manipulated, such that participants were either unaware of the visual digit, the auditory digit, or both. Priming of the semantic relations between the auditory and visual digits was found in all experiments. Moreover, a further experiment showed that unconscious multisensory integration was not obtained when participants did not undergo prior conscious training of the task. This suggests that following conscious learning, unconscious processing suffices for multisensory integration.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Material ItemData
Faivre, Nathan0000-0001-6011-4921
Mudrik, Liad0000-0003-3564-6445
Koch, Christof0000-0001-6482-8067
Additional Information:© 2014 The Author(s). Received February 6, 2014. Accepted July 10, 2014. Published online before print September 30, 2014. Author Contributions: N. Faivre, L. Mudrik, and C. Koch designed the study. Data were collected by N. Schwartz and N. Faivre and analyzed by N. Faivre. All authors wrote the manuscript and approved the final version for submission. Acknowledgments: The authors thank Michael Herzog, Mauro Manassi, and Caitlin Duncan for their help with the control experiments and four anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. Declaration of Conflicting Interests: The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interest with respect to their authorship or the publication of this article. Funding: This research was supported by The G. Harold & Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation. N. Faivre was supported by the Fyssen Foundation. L. Mudrik was supported by the Human Frontier Science Program and the Weizmann Institute of Science National Postdoctoral Award Program for Advancing Women in Science. Supplemental Material: Additional supporting information can be found at http://pss Open Practices: All data and materials have been made publicly available via Open Science Framework and can be accessed at The complete Open Practices Disclosure for this article can be found at This article has received badges for Open Data and Open Materials. More information about the Open Practices badges can be found at and
Group:Koch Laboratory (KLAB)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
G. Harold & Leila Y. Mathers Charitable FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Fyssen FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Human Frontier Science ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:11
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20141006-133628494
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Official Citation:Nathan Faivre, Liad Mudrik, Naama Schwartz, and Christof Koch Multisensory Integration in Complete Unawareness: Evidence From Audiovisual Congruency Priming Psychological Science November 2014 25: 2006-2016, first published on September 30, 2014 doi:10.1177/0956797614547916
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:50214
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Oct 2014 21:59
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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