A Caltech Library Service

The Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA). IV. Dust scaling relations at sub-kpc resolution

Viaene, S. and Fritz, J. and Baes, M. and Bendo, G. J. and Blommaert, J. A. D. L. and Boquien, M. and Boselli, A. and Ciesla, L. and Cortese, L. and De Looze, I. and Gear, W. K. and Gentile, G. and Hughes, T. M. and Jarrett, T. and Karczewski, O. Ł. and Smith, M. W. L. and Spinoglio, L. and Tamm, A. and Tempel, E. and Thilker, D. and Verstappen, J. (2014) The Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA). IV. Dust scaling relations at sub-kpc resolution. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 567 . Art. No. A71. ISSN 0004-6361.

PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.

PDF - Submitted Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Context. Dust and stars play a complex game of interactions in the interstellar medium and around young stars. The imprints of these processes are visible in scaling relations between stellar characteristics, star formation parameters, and dust properties. Aims. In the present work, we aim to examine dust scaling relations on a sub-kpc resolution in the Andromeda galaxy (M 31). The goal is to investigate the properties of M 31 on both a global and local scale and compare them to other galaxies of the local universe. Methods. New Herschel observations are combined with available data from GALEX, SDSS, WISE, and Spitzer to construct a dataset covering UV to submm wavelengths. All images were brought to the beam size and pixel grid of the SPIRE 500 μm frame. This divides M 31 in 22 437 pixels of 36 arcseconds in size on the sky, corresponding to physical regions of 137 × 608 pc in the galaxy’s disk. A panchromatic spectral energy distribution was modelled for each pixel and maps of the physical quantities were constructed. Several scaling relations were investigated, focussing on the interactions of dust with starlight. Results. We find, on a sub-kpc scale, strong correlations between M_dust/M_⋆ and NUV-r, and between M_dust/M_⋆ and μ_⋆ (the stellar mass surface density). Striking similarities with corresponding relations based on integrated galaxies are found. We decompose M 31 in four macro-regions based on their far-infrared morphology; the bulge, inner disk, star forming ring, and the outer disk region. In the scaling relations, all regions closely follow the galaxy-scale average trends and behave like galaxies of different morphological types. The specific star formation characteristics we derive for these macro-regions give strong hints of an inside-out formation of the bulge-disk geometry, as well as an internal downsizing process. Within each macro-region, however, a great diversity in individual micro-regions is found, regardless of the properties of the macro-regions. Furthermore, we confirm that dust in the bulge of M 31 is heated only by the old stellar populations. Conclusions. In general, the local dust scaling relations indicate that the dust content in M 31 is maintained by a subtle interplay of past and present star formation. The similarity with galaxy-based relations strongly suggests that they are in situ correlations, with underlying processes that must be local in nature.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Boquien, M.0000-0003-0946-6176
Cortese, L.0000-0002-7422-9823
Jarrett, T.0000-0002-4939-734X
Smith, M. W. L.0000-0002-3532-6970
Thilker, D.0000-0002-8528-7340
Additional Information:© 2014 ESO. Received 29 January 2014; Accepted 11 March 2014. We would like to thank Elisabete da Cunha for kindly providing the extra libraries in MAGPHYS. We thank all the people involved in the construction and the launch of Herschel. SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff University (UK) and including Univ. Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); IFSI, Univ. Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCL-MSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK); and Caltech, JPL, NHSC, Univ. Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by national funding agencies: CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); SNSB (Sweden); STFC and UKSA (UK); and NASA (USA). HIPE is a joint development (are joint developments) by the Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium, consisting of ESA, the NASA Herschel Science Center, and the HIFI, PACS and SPIRE consortia. GALEX is a NASA Small Explorer, launched in 2003 April. We gratefully acknowledge NASA’s support for construction, operation and science analysis for the GALEX mission, developed in cooperation with the Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) of France and the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. Funding for the SDSS and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS web site is The SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions. The Participating Institutions are the American Museum of Natural History, Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, University of Basel, University of Cambridge, Case Western Reserve University, University of Chicago, Drexel University, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, the Korean Scientist Group, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (LAMOST), Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407. We especially thank P. Barmby and K. Gordon for providing the Spitzer data. This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space Board (SNSB)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: individual: M 31; galaxies: ISM; infrared: ISM; galaxies: fundamental parameters; dust, extinction; methods: observational
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20141009-112445105
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:The Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA) - IV. Dust scaling relations at sub-kpc resolution S. Viaene, J. Fritz, M. Baes, G. J. Bendo, J. A. D. L. Blommaert, M. Boquien, A. Boselli, L. Ciesla, L. Cortese, I. De Looze, W. K. Gear, G. Gentile, T. M. Hughes, T. Jarrett, O. Ł. Karczewski, M. W. L. Smith, L. Spinoglio, A. Tamm, E. Tempel, D. Thilker and J. Verstappen A&A 567 A71 (2014) DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:50310
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:09 Oct 2014 21:19
Last Modified:17 Nov 2019 05:44

Repository Staff Only: item control page