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Wave Generation from Explosions in Rock Cavities

Liu, Cangli and Ahrens, Thomas J. (2001) Wave Generation from Explosions in Rock Cavities. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 158 (11). pp. 1909-1949. ISSN 0033-4553 . https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20141023-074802268

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Abstract

We have developed a measurement method to monitor P- and S-waves generated from laboratory-scale explosions in meter-sized rock samples at a series of stations, as well as invented a device to drill spherical cavities in rock, with diameters up to 10 centimeters. We applied these to experiments in Bedford limestone in which spherical/cylindrical explosives (0.2 to 1.9 g) were centrally placed in 1.2- to 3-cm diameter cavities. Stress waves generated by the explosions were recorded within a radius of 25 cm. The radial stress wave records and post-explosion studies demonstrate that S-waves are generated from explosions in cavities as a result of both wave mode-conversion from the cavity wall and crack propagation in rocks. The experimental results of wave generation from the explosions in spherical and cylindrical cavities demonstrate the cavity geometrical effect on the resulting wave pattern. The P- and S-waves generated by explosions and crack propagation in rocks are analyzed. A simple analytic model for P-wave generation is proposed to explain the differences of P-wave-induced displacement histories between the observed waveforms and those predicted by a step-pressure source. Generally, the qualitative predictions of this model fit the observations. The present results demonstrate the importance of rock cracking and cavities in P- and S-wave generation.


Item Type:Article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/PL00001137 DOIArticle
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Additional Information:© 2001 Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel. Received May 21, 1999, accepted October 31, 2000. We thank Dr. R. Blandford, The Air Force Technical Applications Center, for his critical and beneficial comments, and Jeff Batten, E. Gelle. M. Long, and V. Nenow for their technical support. We also thank Prof. G. Ravichandran for his advice on crack theory. We are grateful to reveiwers for their helpful comments. The project was sponsored by The Air Force Material Command. Contribution number 8627, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Air Force Material CommandUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:explosion; cavities; P-wave; S-wave; cracks
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Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences8627
Issue or Number:11
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20141023-074802268
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20141023-074802268
Official Citation:Liu, C. & Ahrens, T. Pure appl. geophys. (2001) 158: 1909. https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00001137
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:50712
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:23 Oct 2014 16:16
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 07:26

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