A Caltech Library Service

Evidence for the Predominance of Mid-Tropospheric Aerosols as Subtropical Anvil Cloud Nuclei

Fridlind, Ann M. and Ackerman, Andrew S. and Jensen, Eric J. and Heymsfield, Andrew J. and Poellot, Michael R. and Stevens, David E. and Wang, Donghai and Miloshevich, Larry M. and Baumgardner, Darrel and Lawson, R. Paul and Wilson, James C. and Flagan, Richard C. and Seinfeld, John H. and Jonsson, Haflidi H. and VanReken, Timothy M. and Varutbangkul, Varuntida and Rissman, Tracey A. (2004) Evidence for the Predominance of Mid-Tropospheric Aerosols as Subtropical Anvil Cloud Nuclei. Science, 304 (5671). pp. 718-722. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.1094947.

PDF - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


NASA's recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers–Florida Area Cirrus Experiment focused on anvil cirrus clouds, an important but poorly understood element of our climate system. The data obtained included the first comprehensive measurements of aerosols and cloud particles throughout the atmospheric column during the evolution of multiple deep convective storm systems. Coupling these new measurements with detailed cloud simulations that resolve the size distributions of aerosols and cloud particles, we found several lines of evidence indicating that most anvil crystals form on mid-tropospheric rather than boundary-layer aerosols. This result defies conventional wisdom and suggests that distant pollution sources may have a greater effect on anvil clouds than do local sources.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ItemSupporting Material
Flagan, Richard C.0000-0001-5690-770X
Seinfeld, John H.0000-0003-1344-4068
Jonsson, Haflidi H.0000-0003-3043-1074
VanReken, Timothy M.0000-0002-2645-4911
Additional Information:© 2004 American Association for the Advancement of Science. 19 December 2003; accepted 24 March 2004. We thank J. Smith and B. Toon for raising questions about the relative importance of boundary-layer and free tropospheric aerosols, E. Zipser for sharing his experience with tropical convection, W. McKie for keeping our more than 70 computer processors running in concert from Key West to Mountain View, and D. Anderson for leading CRYSTAL-FACE with long-term vision. All of the data collection and modeling associated with this work was coordinated by NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise through NRA-01-OES-02, with funding and support provided by NASA, NOAA, NSF, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Office of Naval Research, and the United States Weather Research Program. We gratefully acknowledge additional computing support provided by DOE’s High Performance Computing Facility.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Office of Naval Research (ONR)UNSPECIFIED
United States Weather Research ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:5671
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20141120-071526447
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Evidence for the Predominance of Mid-Tropospheric Aerosols as Subtropical Anvil Cloud Nuclei Ann M. Fridlind, Andrew S. Ackerman, Eric J. Jensen, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Michael R. Poellot, David E. Stevens, Donghai Wang, Larry M. Miloshevich, Darrel Baumgardner, R. Paul Lawson, James C. Wilson, Richard C. Flagan, John H. Seinfeld, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Timothy M. VanReken, Varuntida Varutbangkul, and Tracey A. Rissman Science 30 April 2004: 304 (5671), 718-722. [DOI:10.1126/science.1094947]
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:51985
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:20 Nov 2014 16:47
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 19:18

Repository Staff Only: item control page