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The ATLAS^(3D) project – XXVII. Cold gas and the colours and ages of early-type galaxies

Young, Lisa M. and Scott, Nicholas and Serra, Paolo and Alatalo, Katherine and Bayet, Estelle and Blitz, Leo and Bois, Maxime and Bournaud, Frédéric and Bureau, Martin and Crocker, Alison F. and Cappellari, Michele and Davies, Roger L. and Davis, Timothy A. and de Zeeuw, P. T. and Duc, Pierre-Alain and Emsellem, Eric and Khochfar, Sadegh and Krajnović, Davor and Kuntschner, Harald and McDermid, Richard M. and Morganti, Raffaella and Naab, Thorsten and Oosterloo, Tom and Sarzi, Marc and Weijmans, Anne-Marie (2014) The ATLAS^(3D) project – XXVII. Cold gas and the colours and ages of early-type galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 444 (4). pp. 3408-3426. ISSN 0035-8711.

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We present a study of the cold gas contents of the ATLAS^(3D) early-type galaxies, in the context of their optical colours, near-ultraviolet colours and Hβ absorption line strengths. Early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies are not as gas poor as previously thought, and at least 40 per cent of local early-type galaxies are now known to contain molecular and/or atomic gas. This cold gas offers the opportunity to study recent galaxy evolution through the processes of cold gas acquisition, consumption (star formation) and removal. Molecular and atomic gas detection rates range from 10 to 34 per cent in red sequence early-type galaxies, depending on how the red sequence is defined, and from 50 to 70 per cent in blue early-type galaxies. Notably, massive red sequence early-type galaxies (stellar masses >5 × 10^(10) M_⊙, derived from dynamical models) are found to have H i masses up to M(H i)/M_* ∼ 0.06 and H_2 masses up to M(H_2)/M_* ∼ 0.01. Some 20 per cent of all massive early-type galaxies may have retained atomic and/or molecular gas through their transition to the red sequence. However, kinematic and metallicity signatures of external gas accretion (either from satellite galaxies or the intergalactic medium) are also common, particularly at stellar masses ≤5 × 10^(10) M_⊙, where such signatures are found in ∼50 per cent of H_2-rich early-type galaxies. Our data are thus consistent with a scenario in which fast rotator early-type galaxies are quenched former spiral galaxies which have undergone some bulge growth processes, and in addition, some of them also experience cold gas accretion which can initiate a period of modest star formation activity. We discuss implications for the interpretation of colour–magnitude diagrams.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Alatalo, Katherine0000-0002-4261-2326
Blitz, Leo0000-0002-4272-4432
Crocker, Alison F.0000-0001-8513-4945
Davies, Roger L.0000-0002-3324-4824
Additional Information:© 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2013 December 16. Received 2013 December 11; in original form 2013 November 5. First published online September 17, 2014. This research was partially supported by grant NSF-1109803 to LMY. Thanks also to Dr Paul T. P. Ho for the invitation to spend a sabbatical at ASIAA. MC acknowledges support from a Royal Society University Research Fellowship. This work was supported by the rolling grants Astrophysics at Oxford PP/E001114/1 and ST/H002456/1 and visitors grants PPA/V/S/2002/00553, PP/E001564/1 and ST/H504862/1 from the UK Research Councils. RLD acknowledges travel and computer grants from Christ Church, Oxford and support from the Royal Society in the form of a Wolfson Merit Award 502011.K502/jd. RLD is also grateful for support from the Australian Astronomical Observatory Distinguished Visitors programme, the ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics and the University of Sydney during a sabbatical visit. SK acknowledges support from the Royal Society Joint Projects grant JP0869822. RMMcD is supported by the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., on behalf of the international Gemini partnership of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, UK and USA. TN and MBois acknowledge support from the DFG Cluster of Excellence ‘Origin and Structure of the Universe’. MS acknowledges support from a STFC Advanced Fellowship ST/F009186/1. PS acknowledges support of a NWO/Veni grant (TAD). The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (/FP7/2007-2013/) under grant agreement no. 229517. MBois has received, during this research, funding from the European Research Council under the Advanced Grant Programme no. 267399-Momentum. The authors acknowledge financial support from ESO. Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation and the USA Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III website is SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration including the University of Arizona, the Brazilian Participation Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Florida, the French Participation Group, the German Participation Group, Harvard University, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, New Mexico State University, New York University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the Spanish Participation Group, University of Tokyo, University of Utah, Vanderbilt University, University of Virginia, University of Washington and Yale University.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC)PP/E001114/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/H002456/1
Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC)PPA/V/S/2002/00553
Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC)PP/E001564/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/H504862/1
Royal Society502011.K502/jd
Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO)UNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
University of SydneyUNSPECIFIED
Royal SocietyJP0869822
Gemini ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/F009186/1
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)229517
European Research Council (ERC)267399-Momentum
European Southern Observatory (ESO)UNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD galaxies: evolution galaxies: ISM galaxies: structure radio lines: galaxies
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20141121-113619499
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Official Citation:Lisa M. Young, Nicholas Scott, Paolo Serra, Katherine Alatalo, Estelle Bayet, Leo Blitz, Maxime Bois, Frédéric Bournaud, Martin Bureau, Alison F. Crocker, Michele Cappellari, Roger L. Davies, Timothy A. Davis, P. T. de Zeeuw, Pierre-Alain Duc, Eric Emsellem, Sadegh Khochfar, Davor Krajnović, Harald Kuntschner, Richard M. McDermid, Raffaella Morganti, Thorsten Naab, Tom Oosterloo, Marc Sarzi, and Anne-Marie Weijmans The ATLAS3D project – XXVII. Cold gas and the colours and ages of early-type galaxies MNRAS (November 11, 2014) Vol. 444 3408-3426 doi:10.1093/mnras/stt2474 First published online September 17, 2014
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:52045
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:21 Nov 2014 22:30
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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