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Kepler-424 b: A "Lonely" Hot Jupiter That Found A Companion

Endl, Michael and Caldwell, Douglas A. and Barclay, Thomas and Huber, Daniel and Isaacson, Howard and Buchhave, Lars A. and Brugamyer, Erik and Robertson, Paul and Cochran, William D. and MacQueen, Phillip and Havel, Mathieu and Lucas, Phillip and Howell, Steve B. and Fischer, Debra and Quintana, Elisa and Ciardi, David R. (2014) Kepler-424 b: A "Lonely" Hot Jupiter That Found A Companion. Astrophysical Journal, 795 (2). Art. No. 151. ISSN 0004-637X.

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Hot Jupiter systems provide unique observational constraints for migration models in multiple systems and binaries. We report on the discovery of the Kepler-424 (KOI-214) two-planet system, which consists of a transiting hot Jupiter (Kepler-424b) in a 3.31 day orbit accompanied by a more massive outer companion in an eccentric (e = 0.3) 223 day orbit. The outer giant planet, Kepler-424c, is not detected transiting the host star. The masses of both planets and the orbital parameters for the second planet were determined using precise radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and its High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS). In stark contrast to smaller planets, hot Jupiters are predominantly found to be lacking any nearby additional planets; they appear to be "lonely". This might be a consequence of these systems having a highly dynamical past. The Kepler-424 planetary system has a hot Jupiter in a multiple system, similar to similar to υ Andromedae. We also present our results for Kepler-422 (KOI-22), Kepler-77 (KOI-127), Kepler-43 (KOI-135), and Kepler-423 (KOI-183). These results are based on spectroscopic data collected with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), the Keck 1 telescope, and HET. For all systems, we rule out false positives based on various follow-up observations, confirming the planetary nature of these companions. We performed a comparison with planetary evolutionary models which indicate that these five hot Jupiters have heavy element contents between 20 and 120 M_⊕.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Endl, Michael0000-0002-7714-6310
Caldwell, Douglas A.0000-0003-1963-9616
Barclay, Thomas0000-0001-7139-2724
Huber, Daniel0000-0001-8832-4488
Isaacson, Howard0000-0002-0531-1073
Buchhave, Lars A.0000-0003-1605-5666
Robertson, Paul0000-0003-0149-9678
Cochran, William D.0000-0001-9662-3496
Lucas, Phillip0000-0002-8872-4462
Howell, Steve B.0000-0002-2532-2853
Fischer, Debra0000-0003-2221-0861
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Additional Information:© 2014 American Astronomical Society. Received 2014 June 13; accepted 2014 September 13; published 2014 October 23. Funding for this Discovery mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. We thank the entire Kepler team, a wonderful group of people who make this mission so successful. We also thank the anonymous referee whose comments helped to improve this paper. M.E. and D.H. acknowledge support by NASA under grants NNX14AB86G (ME) and NNX14AB92G (DH) issued through the Kepler Participating Scientist Program.We are grateful to Geoff Marcy and Andrew Howard for their help in obtaining the Keck/HIRES observations. The Hobby–Eberly Telescope (HET) is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. The HET is named in honor of its principal benefactors,William P. Hobby and Robert E. Eberly. Based in part on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:planetary systems; stars: individual (KOI-22, KOI-127, KOI-135, KOI-183, KOI-214, Kepler-43, Kepler-77); techniques: radial velocities
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20141202-065549772
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Kepler-424 b: A "Lonely" Hot Jupiter that Found a Companion Michael Endl et al. 2014 ApJ 795 151
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:52253
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:02 Dec 2014 15:48
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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