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Modular cis-regulatory organization of developmentally expressed genes: Two genes transcribed territorially in the sea urchin embryo, and additional examples

Kirchhamer, Carmen V. and Yuh, Chiou-Hwa and Davidson, Eric H. (1996) Modular cis-regulatory organization of developmentally expressed genes: Two genes transcribed territorially in the sea urchin embryo, and additional examples. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93 (18). pp. 9322-9328. ISSN 0027-8424. PMCID PMC38426. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20141204-105817862

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Abstract

The cis-regulatory systems that control developmental expression of two sea urchin genes have been subjected to detailed functional analysis. Both systems are modular in organization: specific, separable fragments of the cis-regulatory DNA each containing multiple transcription factor target sites execute particular regulatory subfunctions when associated with reporter genes and introduced into the embryo. The studies summarized here were carried out on the CyIIIa gene, expressed in the embryonic aboral ectoderm and on the Endo16 gene, expressed in the embryonic vegetal plate, archenteron, and then midgut. The regulatory systems of both genes include modules that control particular aspects of temporal and spatial expression, and in both the territorial boundaries of expression depend on a combination of negative and positive functions. In both genes different regulatory modules control early and late embryonic expression. Modular cis-regulatory organization is widespread in developmentally regulated genes, and we present a tabular summary that includes many examples from mouse and Drosophila. We regard cis-regulatory modules as units of developmental transcription control, and also of evolution, in the assembly of transcription control systems.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://www.pnas.org/content/93/18/9322PublisherArticle
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.18.9322DOIArticle
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC38426/PubMed CentralArticle
Additional Information:© 1996 National Academy of Sciences. This paper was presented at a colloquium entitled "Biology of Developmental Transcription Control," organized by Eric H. Davidson, Roy J. Britten, and Gary Felsenfeld, held October 26-28, 1995, at the National Academy of Sciences in Irvine, CA. The research summarized in this review was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant HD-05753. The publication costs of this article were defrayed in part by page charge payment. This article must therefore be hereby marked "advertisement" in accordance with 18 U.S.C. §1734 solely to indicate this fact.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NIHHD-05753
Subject Keywords:Strongylocentrotus purpuratus; cis-regulatory systems; CyIIIa; Endo16; spatial information processing
Issue or Number:18
PubMed Central ID:PMC38426
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20141204-105817862
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20141204-105817862
Official Citation:C V Kirchhamer, C H Yuh, and E H Davidson Modular cis-regulatory organization of developmentally expressed genes: two genes transcribed territorially in the sea urchin embryo, and additional examples PNAS 1996 93 (18) 9322-9328
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:52382
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:04 Dec 2014 19:12
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 07:41

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