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Electronic shielding by closed shells in salts of thulium

Barnes, R. G. and Mössbauer, R. L. and Kankeleit, E. and Poindexter, J. M. (1964) Electronic shielding by closed shells in salts of thulium. Physical Review, 136 (1A). A175-A189. ISSN 0031-899X. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.136.A175.

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Electronic shielding by closed electron shells has been investigated in salts of trivalent thulium, by measuring the temperature dependence of the nuclear quadrupole splitting of the 8.42-keV gamma transition in Tm169. The measurements were performed by using the technique of recoilless nuclear resonance absorption. The nuclear quadrupole interaction was studied for Tm3+ ions in thulium ethyl sulfate, thulium oxide, and thulium trifluoride within a temperature range from 9.6 to 1970°K. The interpretation of the experimental data in terms of the contributions of distorted closed electron shells to the quadrupole interaction yields values for electronic shielding factors. The results lead to amounts of 10% or less for the atomic Sternheimer factor RQ. The experiments also reveal substantial shielding of the 4f electrons from the crystal electric field, expressed by the shielding factor σ2. Values of 250 and 130 are obtained for the ratio (1-γ∞)/(1-σ2) for thulium ethyl sulfate and thulium oxide, respectively, where γ∞ is the lattice Sternheimer factor.

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Additional Information:©1964 The American Physical Society. Received 1 May 1964. The authors would like to thank Professor F. H. Spedding for making available the samples of TmES used in this work. It is a pleasure to acknowledge stimulating discussions with Dr. R. J. Elliott, Dr. A. J. Freeman, Dr. R. Orbach, Dr. D. A. Shirley, and Dr. E. Y. Wong. We would like to thank Dr. J. B. Gruber for providing us with his optical data prior to publication. We thank F. T. Snively for his participation in part of the measurements. One of us (E.K.) acknowledges the partial support of the Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft of the Federal Republic of Germany. One of us (R.G.B.) gratefully acknowledges the support and hospitality of the California Institute of Technology, which allowed him to participate in this work.
Issue or Number:1A
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:5283
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Oct 2006
Last Modified:08 Nov 2021 20:24

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