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Density and conductivity of bismuth single crystals grown in magnetic fields with relation to their mosaic structure

Goetz, Alexander and Focke, Alfred B. (1931) Density and conductivity of bismuth single crystals grown in magnetic fields with relation to their mosaic structure. Physical Review, 37 (9). pp. 1044-1056. ISSN 0031-899X. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.37.1044.

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In continuation of the study of the thermoelectric effect, previously described by Goetz and Hasler, existing between the two halves of the same bismuth single crystal, of which one has been crystallized within, and the other outside of a strong magnetic field (21,000 gauss), the density and the specific resistance of different sections of these crystals, grown by the discontinuous method, have now been measured. The change of density of "magnetic" crystals. The density of perfect crystals grown under normal conditions was found to be between 9.82 and 9.83 i.e., 0.2 percent higher than the values of other authors. Furthermore, it was found that any crystalline imperfection such as twinning, etc., decreases the density; that, further there exists a difference of density between the "normal" and the "magnetic" half of the same crystal, the sign of which depends on the orientation with which the crystal entered the field: In case the trigonal axis is normal to the axis of the rod and normal to the lines of force, the "magnetic" half shows an increase of density, whereas the opposite is true in case the principal axis is parallel to the rod (and therefore parallel to the direction of growth and to the heat-flow). The difference of density is ca. 0.3 percent but can be several percent in imperfect crystals. The purity of the metal affects the change of the density. The results indicate that the ideally pure metal would not be affected by the magnetic treatment. The specific resistance of "magnetic" crystals. The values of the specific resistance obtained on "normal" single crystals agree approximately with the results obtained by Bridgman and Kapitza and also with those obtained by spectroscopic analysis. The value of ρ∥/ρ⊥ was found to be much larger for bismuth, being sensitive to the "magnetic" treatment. There is a small change of resistance between the normal and the magnetic half, depending on the orientation of the crystal to the field. In case the orientation is such as to decrease the density the resistance increases and vice versa. The accuracy necessary for the satisfactory quantitative determination of the change could not yet be reached, since the change is of the magnitude of 0.5 percent. An attempt is made to combine the phenomena of the magnetic effect thus far known. It seems probable that the influence of the magnetic field upon the formation of a crystal consists of a change within the mosaic structure of the lattice. The investigation is being continued.

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Additional Information:© 1931 The American Physical Society. Received 2 March 1931.
Issue or Number:9
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:GOEpr31
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:5378
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:16 Oct 2006
Last Modified:08 Nov 2021 20:25

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