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Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Spectral Mapping of Jupiter and the Galilean Satellites: Results from Galileo's Initial Orbit

Carlson, R. and Smythe, W. and Baines, K. and Barbinis, E. and Becker, K. and Burns, R. and Calcutt, S. and Calvin, W. and Clark, R. and Danielson, G. and Davies, A. and Drossart, P. and Encrenaz, T. and Fanale, F. and Granahan, J. and Hansen, G. and Herrera, P. and Hibbitts, C. and Hui, J. and Irwin, P. and Johnson, T. and Kamp, L. and Kieffer, H. and Leader, F. and Lellouch, E. and Lopes-Gautier, R. and Matson, D. and McCord, T. and Mehlman, R. and Ocampo, A. and Orton, G. and Roos-Serote, M. and Segura, M. and Shirley, J. and Soderblom, L. and Stevenson, A. and Taylor, F. and Torson, J. and Weir, A. and Weissman, P. (1996) Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Spectral Mapping of Jupiter and the Galilean Satellites: Results from Galileo's Initial Orbit. Science, 274 (5286). pp. 385-388. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.274.5286.385.

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The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer performed spectral studies of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites during the June 1996 perijove pass of the Galileo spacecraft. Spectra for a 5-micrometer hot spot on Jupiter are consistent with the absence of a significant water cloud above 8 bars and with a depletion of water compared to that predicted for solar composition, corroborating results from the Galileo probe. Great Red Spot (GRS) spectral images show that parts of this feature extend upward to 240 millibars, although considerable altitude-dependent structure is found within it. A ring of dense clouds surrounds the GRS and is lower than it by 3 to 7 kilometers. Spectra of Callisto and Ganymede reveal a feature at 4.25 micrometers, attributed to the presence of hydrated minerals or possibly carbon dioxide on their surfaces. Spectra of Europa's high latitudes imply that fine-grained water frost overlies larger grains. Several active volcanic regions were found on Io, with temperatures of 420 to 620 kelvin and projected areas of 5 to 70 square kilometers.

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Davies, A.0000-0003-1747-8142
Orton, G.0000-0001-7871-2823
Soderblom, L.0000-0002-0917-853X
Additional Information:© 1996 American Association for the Advancement of Science. 9 September 1996; Accepted 30 September 1996. We thank the Galileo staff who reprogrammed the spacecraft, tested the combined system, and successfully brought back the acquired data. For CDS programming efforts: T. Brady, D. Erickson, F. Ford, E. Greenberg, B. Jaffe, B. Miller, E. Nicolich, and D. Winther; for devising the NIMS lossless data compression algorithm, R. Rice; for testing support: G. Laborde, C. Compton, M. Orozco, M. Molander, Q. Chau, J. Mirelez, W. Currie, J. Dodds, R. Nava, G. Levanas, R. Morgan, T. Verbich, H. Tran, A. Tallman, R. Scrivner, R. Wendlandt, M. Fahid, W. Hoffman, A. Vaughs, B. Bennett, B. Beaudry, E. Imlay, T. Neilson, P. Donatucci, G. LaBorde, K. McGraw, E. Nilsen, G. Snyder, J. Glance, P. Broer, M. Varuna, J Michael, and D. Bluhm; for inflight loads: R. Barry, N. Simon, R. Weaver, and other members mentioned earlier; for playback support: A. Dicicco and J. Culwell; for observation design: B. Cracchiola and L. Crowell; for ground data support: H.-Mortenson, D. Jenson, D. Knight, S. Noland, C. Stanley, and J. Yoshimizu; and for computer and general support: T. Arakelian, N. Cline, J. Alonzo, and J. Gardner. Portions of the work described herein was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
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Issue or Number:5286
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Official Citation:Carlson, R., Smythe, W., Baines, K., Barbinis, E., Becker, K., Burns, R., . . . Weissman, P. (1996). Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Spectral Mapping of Jupiter and the Galilean Satellites: Results from Galileo's Initial Orbit. Science, 274(5286), 385-388. doi: 10.1126/science.274.5286.385
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:53884
Deposited On:21 Jan 2015 05:47
Last Modified:18 Jan 2023 20:31

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