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A Joint Analysis of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck Data

Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Ahmed, Z. and Aikin, R. W. and Alexander, K. D. and Arnaud, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A. J. and Barkats, D. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartlett, J. G. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Benton, S. J. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bischoff, C. A. and Bock, J. J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Boulanger, F. and Brevik, J. A. and Bucher, M. and Buder, I. and Bullock, E. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R. C. and Buza, V. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J. -F. and Catalano, A. and Challinor, A. and Chary, R.-R. and Chiang, H. C. and Christensen, P. R. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Combet, C. and Connors, J. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, Paolo and Rosa, A. de and Zotti, G. de and Delabrouille, J. and Delouis, J. -M. and Désert, F. -X. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Dowell, C. D. and Duband, L. and Ducout, A. and Dunkley, J. and Dupac, X. and Dvorkin, C. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Filippini, J. P. and Finelli, F. and Fliescher, S. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Ghosh, T. and Giard, M. and Gjerløw, E. and Golwala, S. R. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J. E. and Halpern, M. and Hansen, F. K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. L. and Hasselfield, M. and Helou, G. and Henrot-Versillé, S. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hilton, G. C. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W. A. and Hovest, W. and Hristov, V. V. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hui, H. and Hurier, G. and Irwin, K. D. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Jewell, J. and Jones, W. C. and Juvela, M. and Karkare, K. S. and Kaufman, J. P. and Keating, B. G. and Kefeli, S. and Keihanen, E. and Kernasovskiy, S. A. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T. S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Knox, L. and Kovac, J. M. and Krachmalnicoff, N. and Kunz, M. and Kuo, C. L. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leitch, E. M. and Leonardi, R. and Levrier, F. and Lewis, A. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Lueker, M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maffei, B. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Maris, M. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Mason, P. and Matarrese, S. and Megerian, K. G. and Meinhold, P. R. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschênes, M.-A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Moss, A. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C. B. and Nguyen, H. T. and Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and O'Brient, R. and Ogburn IV, R. W. and Orlando, A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paladini, R. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Pearson, T. J. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Pratt, G. W. and Prunet, S. and Pryke, C. and Puget, J.-L. and Rachen, J. P. and Reach, W. T. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Renzi, A. and Richter, S. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rowan-Robinson, M. and Rubiño-Martin, J. A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Savini, G. and Schwarz, R. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M. D. and Sheehy, C. D. and Spencer, L. D. and Staniszewski, Z. K. and Stolyarov, V. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. A. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A.-S. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J. A. and Teply, G. P. and Terenzi, L. and Thompson, K. L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tolan, J. E. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Turner, A. D. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Tent, B. Van and Vibert, L. and Vielva, P. and Vieregg, A. G. and Villa, F. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and Watson, R. and Weber, A. C. and Wehus, I. K. and White, M. and White, S. D. M. and Willmert, J. and Wong, C. L. and Yoon, K. W. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. (2015) A Joint Analysis of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck Data. Physical Review Letters, 114 (10). Art. No. 101301. ISSN 0031-9007.

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We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400  deg2 patch of sky centered on RA 0 h, Dec. −57.5°. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in a band centered at 150 GHz. Planck has observed the full sky in polarization at seven frequencies from 30 to 353 GHz, but much less deeply in any given region (1.2  μK deg in Q and U at 143 GHz). We detect 150×353 cross-correlation in B modes at high significance. We fit the single- and cross-frequency power spectra at frequencies ≥150  GHz to a lensed-ΛCDM model that includes dust and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r), using a prior on the frequency spectral behavior of polarized dust emission from previous Planck analysis of other regions of the sky. We find strong evidence for dust and no statistically significant evidence for tensor modes. We probe various model variations and extensions, including adding a synchrotron component in combination with lower frequency data, and find that these make little difference to the r constraint. Finally, we present an alternative analysis which is similar to a map-based cleaning of the dust contribution, and show that this gives similar constraints. The final result is expressed as a likelihood curve for r, and yields an upper limit r0.05<0.12 at 95% confidence. Marginalizing over dust and r, lensing B modes are detected at 7.0σ significance.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper InPhysics: Viewpoint
Ade, P. A. R.0000-0002-5127-0401
Aghanim, N.0000-0002-6688-8992
Alexander, K. D.0000-0002-8297-2473
Barreiro, R. B.0000-0002-6139-4272
Bock, J. J.0000-0002-5710-5212
Bond, J. R.0000-0003-2358-9949
Chary, R.-R.0000-0001-7583-0621
Crill, B. P.0000-0002-4650-8518
de Bernardis, Paolo0000-0001-6547-6446
Dickinson, C.0000-0002-0045-442X
Diego, J. M.0000-0001-9065-3926
Doré, O.0000-0002-5009-7563
Filippini, J. P.0000-0001-8217-6832
Forni, O.0000-0001-6772-9689
Golwala, S. R.0000-0002-1098-7174
Halpern, M.0000-0002-1760-0868
Helou, G.0000-0003-3367-3415
Karkare, K. S.0000-0002-5215-6993
Martin, P. G.0000-0002-5236-3896
Masi, S.0000-0001-5105-1439
Paladini, R.0000-0002-5158-243X
Pearson, T. J.0000-0001-5213-6231
Piacentini, F.0000-0002-5444-9327
Reach, W. T.0000-0001-8362-4094
Rebolo, R.0000-0003-3767-7085
Rocha, G.0000-0002-4150-8076
Rusholme, B.0000-0001-7648-4142
Scott, D.0000-0002-6878-9840
Additional Information:© 2015 American Physical Society. (Received 21 January 2015; published 9 March 2015) BICEP2 was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grants No. ANT-0742818 and No. ANT-1044978 (Caltech and Harvard) and No. ANT-0742592 and No. ANT-1110087 (Chicago and Minnesota). The development of antenna-coupled detector technology was supported by the JPL Research and Technology Development Fund and Grants No. 06-ARPA206-0040 and No. 10-SAT10-0017 from the NASA APRA and SAT programs. The Keck Array project was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. ANT-1145172 (Harvard), No. ANT-1145143 (Minnesota) and No. ANT-1145248 (Stanford), and from the Keck Foundation (Caltech). We thank the staff of the U.S. Antarctic Program and in particular the South Pole Station without whose help this research would not have been possible. The Planck Collaboration acknowledges the support of the following: ESA; CNES, and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MINECO, JA and RES (Spain); Tekes, AoF, and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada); DTU Space (Denmark); SER/SSO (Switzerland); RCN (Norway); SFI (Ireland); FCT/MCTES (Portugal); ERC and PRACE (EU). A description of the Planck Collaboration and a list of its members, indicating which technical or scientific activities they have been involved in, can be found in Ref. [52].
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFANT- 1044978
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Tekes and CSC (Finland)UNSPECIFIED
Deutschen Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
Research Council of NorwayUNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut national des sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
JPL Research and Technology Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)UNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaUNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)UNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:10
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20150205-194356590
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Joint Analysis of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck Data P. A. R. Ade et al. (BICEP2/Keck and Planck Collaborations) Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 101301
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:54466
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:06 Feb 2015 05:09
Last Modified:30 Oct 2020 21:48

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