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Formation Flight of Birds

Lissaman, P. B. S. and Shollenberger, Carl A. (1970) Formation Flight of Birds. Science, 168 (3934). pp. 1003-1005. ISSN 0036-8075.

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Formation flight of birds improves aerodynamic efficiency. Theoretically, 25 birds could have a range increase of about 70 percent as compared with a lone bird, the advantage being more pronounced when there is a tail wind. A vee formation is required to equally distribute the drag saving, and, contrary to other statements, the lead bird does not necessarily have the most strenuous position. The angle of the predicted vee compares with that observed in nature; stability mechanisms are described which make it easy and natural for the bird to sense optimal formations.

Item Type:Article
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Additional Information:© 1970 American Association for the Advancement of Science. 17 November 1969; Revised 26 February 1970.
Issue or Number:3934
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20150210-112537335
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Official Citation:Lissaman, P. B. S., & Shollenberger, C. A. (1970). Formation Flight of Birds. Science, 168(3934), 1003-1005. doi: 10.1126/science.168.3934.1003
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:54664
Deposited By: Joanne McCole
Deposited On:10 Feb 2015 23:32
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 07:59

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