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Filamentary structure and Keplerian rotation in the high-mass star-forming region G35.03+0.35 imaged with ALMA

Beltrán, M. T. and Sánchez-Monge, Á. and Cesaroni, R. and Kumar, M. S. N. and Galli, D. and Walmsley, C. M. and Etoka, S. and Furuya, R. S. and Moscadelli, L. and Stanke, T. and van der Tak, F. F. S. and Vig, S. and Wang, K.-S. and Zinnecker, H. and Elia, D. and Schisano, E. (2014) Filamentary structure and Keplerian rotation in the high-mass star-forming region G35.03+0.35 imaged with ALMA. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 571 . Art. No. A52. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424031.

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Context. Theoretical scenarios propose that high-mass stars are formed by disk-mediated accretion. Aims. To test the theoretical predictions on the formation of massive stars, we wish to make a thorough study at high-angular resolution of the structure and kinematics of the dust and gas emission toward the high-mass star-forming region G35.03+0.35, which harbors a disk candidate around a B-type (proto)star. Methods. We carried out ALMA Cycle 0 observations at 870 μm of dust of typical high-density, molecular outflow, and cloud tracers with resolutions of < 0"5. Complementary Subaru COMICS 25 μm observations were carried out to trace the mid-infrared emission toward this star-forming region. Results. The submillimeter continuum emission has revealed a filamentary structure fragmented into six cores, called A–F. The filament could be in quasi-equilibrium taking into account that the mass per unit length of the filament, 200–375 M_⊙/pc, is similar to the critical mass of a thermally and turbulently supported infinite cylinder, ~335 M_⊙/pc. The cores, which are on average separated by ~0.02 pc, have deconvolved sizes of 1300–3400 AU, temperatures of 35–240 K, H_2 densities >10^7 cm^(-3), and masses in the range 1–5 M_⊙, and they are subcritical. Core A, which is associated with a hypercompact Hii region and could be the driving source of the molecular outflow observed in the region, is the most chemically rich source in G35.03+0.35 with strong emission of typical hot core tracers such as CH_3CN. Tracers of high density and excitation show a clear velocity gradient along the major axis of the core, which is consistent with a disk rotating about the axis of the associated outflow. The PV plots along the SE–NW direction of the velocity gradient show clear signatures of Keplerian rotation, although infall could also be present, and they are consistent with the pattern of an edge-on Keplerian disk rotating about a star with a mass in the range 5–13 M_⊙. The high t_(ff)/t_(rot) ratio for core A suggests that the structure rotates fast and that the accreting material has time to settle into a centrifugally supported disk. Conclusions. G35.03+0.35 is one of the most convincing examples of Keplerian disks rotating about high-mass (proto)stars. This supports theoretical scenarios according to which high-mass stars, at least B-type stars, would form through disk-mediated accretion.

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Additional Information:© 2014 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 18 April 2014. Accepted 24 July 2014. Published online 06 November 2014. We thank Claudia Cyganowski for kindly providing the 8.4 GHz continuum emission data of this region. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00275.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), the NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. We acknowledge the Italian ARC for the computational support. R.S.F. acknowledges T. Usuda, T. Inagaki, S. S. Hayashi, and H. Shinnaga for their help with the Subaru observations and data reduction. This work is based (in part) on archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by an award issued by JPL/Caltech. The ATLASGAL project is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, the European Southern Observatory (ESO), and the Universidad de Chile. This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This research made use of data products from the Midcourse Space Experiment. Processing of the data was funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization with additional support from the NASA Office of Space Science. This research also made use of the NASA/ IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA.
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Ballistic Missile Defense OrganizationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:ISM: individual objects: G35.03+0.35, ISM: molecules, stars: formation, stars: kinematics and dynamics, HII regions
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Official Citation:Filamentary structure and Keplerian rotation in the high-mass star-forming region G35.03+0.35 imaged with ALMA M. T. Beltrán, Á. Sánchez-Monge, R. Cesaroni, M. S. N. Kumar, D. Galli, C. M. Walmsley, S. Etoka, R. S. Furuya, L. Moscadelli, T. Stanke, F. F. S. van der Tak, S. Vig, K.-S. Wang, H. Zinnecker, D. Elia and E. Schisano A&A 571 A52 (2014) DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:55024
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:19 Feb 2015 23:45
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 20:40

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