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Slow-speed Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: Two Channels

White, Christopher J. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Nugent, Peter E. and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Howell, D. Andrew and Sullivan, Mark and Goobar, Ariel and Piro, Anthony L. and Bloom, Joshua S. and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Laher, Russ R. and Masci, Frank J. and Ofek, Eran O. and Surace, Jason and Ben-Ami, Sagi and Cao, Yi and Cenko, S. Bradley and Hook, Isobel M. and Jönsson, Jakob (2015) Slow-speed Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: Two Channels. Astrophysical Journal, 799 (1). Art. No. 52. ISSN 0004-637X.

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Since the discovery of the unusual prototype SN 2002cx, the eponymous class of Type I (hydrogen-poor) supernovae with low ejecta speeds has grown to include approximately two dozen members identified from several heterogeneous surveys, in some cases ambiguously. Here we present the results of a systematic study of 1077 Type I supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory, leading to nine new members of this peculiar class. Moreover, we find there are two distinct subclasses based on their spectroscopic, photometric, and host galaxy properties: "SN 2002cx-like" supernovae tend to be in later-type or more irregular hosts, have more varied and generally dimmer luminosities, have longer rise times, and lack a Ti ii trough when compared to "SN 2002es-like" supernovae. None of our objects show helium, and we counter a previous claim of two such events. We also find that the occurrence rate of these transients relative to Type Ia supernovae is 5.6^(+22)_(-3.8)% (90% confidence), lower compared to earlier estimates. Combining our objects with the literature sample, we propose that these subclasses have two distinct physical origins.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Nugent, Peter E.0000-0002-3389-0586
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Howell, D. Andrew0000-0003-4253-656X
Sullivan, Mark0000-0001-9053-4820
Goobar, Ariel0000-0002-4163-4996
Piro, Anthony L.0000-0001-6806-0673
Bloom, Joshua S.0000-0002-7777-216X
Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Laher, Russ R.0000-0003-2451-5482
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Surace, Jason0000-0001-7291-0087
Ben-Ami, Sagi0000-0001-6760-3074
Cao, Yi0000-0002-8036-8491
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Hook, Isobel M.0000-0002-2960-978X
Additional Information:© 2015 The American Astronomical Society. Received 5 May 201; accepted for publication 6 November 2014; published 15 January 2015. We are grateful toM.H. vanKerkwijk and J. M. Silverman for valuable discussions. We thank the referee for useful comments that improved this manuscript, as well as R. J. Foley for a close reading and detailed feedback. We also thank I. Arcavi, C. Badenes, V. Bhalerao, K. Clubb, A. Cucchiara, A. De Cia, O. Fox, A. Horesh, D. Levitan, K. Mooley, D. Perley, S. Tang, S. Tendulkar, P. Vreeswijk, and D. Xu for their contributions to PTF, especially with observations and data reduction. C. J. W. began this research as part of the summer student exchange program between Princeton and Carnegie. M. M. K. acknowledges generous support from the Hubble Fellowship and Carnegie-Princeton Fellowship. A. G.-Y. acknowledges support by the EU/FP7 via ERC grant 307260; ISF, Minerva, and Weizmann-UK grants; as well as the “Quantum Universe” I-Core Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and the Israel Science Foundation and the Kimmel Award. A. L. P. is supported through NSF grants AST-1205732, PHY-1068881, and PHY-1151197, as well as the Sherman Fairchild Foundation. E. O. O. is incumbent on the Arye Dissentshik career development chair and is grateful for support by grants from the Willner Family Leadership Institute, Ilan Gluzman (Secaucus, NJ), the Israeli Ministry of Science, the Israel Science Foundation, Minerva, Weizmann-UK, and the I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and the Israel Science Foundation. This research made use of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED),WISeREP, SIMBAD, and VizieR. The PTF spectra for the slowspeed sample will be made available on WISeREP. Facilities. PO:1.2 m, PO:1.5 m, Keck:I (LRIS), Hale (DBSP), ING:Herschel (ISIS), Keck:II (DEIMOS), Magellan:Baade (IMACS)
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Palomar Transient Factory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Carnegie-Princeton FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)307260
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting CommitteeUNSPECIFIED
Sherman Fairchild FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Willner Family Leadership InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:supernovae: general; supernovae: individual (iPTF 13an, PTF 09ego, PTF 09eiy, PTF 09eoi, PTF 10xk, PTF 10bvr, PTF 10ujn, PTF 10acdh, PTF 11hyh, SN 2002cx, SN 2002es); surveys; techniques: spectroscopic
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20150226-094929739
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Slow-speed Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: Two Channels Christopher J. White et al. 2015 ApJ 799 52
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:55245
Deposited By: Jason Perez
Deposited On:26 Feb 2015 19:54
Last Modified:22 Nov 2019 20:40

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