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Evolution of the dust emission of massive galaxies up to z = 4 and constraints on their dominant mode of star formation

Béthermin, Matthieu and Daddi, Emanuele and Magdis, Georgios and Lagos, Claudia and Sargent, Mark and Albrecht, Marcus and Aussel, Herve and Bertoldi, Frank and Buat, Véronique and Galametz, Maud and Heinis, Sébastien and Ilbert, Olivier and Karim, Alexander and Koekemoer, Anton and Lacey, Cedric and Le Floc'h, Emeric and Navarrete, Felipe and Pannella, Maurilio and Schreiber, Corentin and Smolčić, Vernesa and Symeonidis, Myrto and Viero, Marco (2015) Evolution of the dust emission of massive galaxies up to z = 4 and constraints on their dominant mode of star formation. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 573 . Art. No. A113. ISSN 0004-6361.

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We aim to measure the average dust and molecular gas content of massive star-forming galaxies (>3 × 10^(10)M_⊙) up to z = 4 in the COSMOS field to determine if the intense star formation observed at high redshift is induced by major mergers or is caused by large gas reservoirs. Firstly, we measured the evolution of the average spectral energy distributions as a function of redshift using a stacking analysis of Spitzer, Herschel, LABOCA, and AzTEC data for two samples of galaxies: normal star-forming objects and strong starbursts, as defined by their distance to the main sequence. We found that the mean intensity of the radiation field ⟨ U ⟩ heating the dust (strongly correlated with dust temperature) increases with increasing redshift up to z = 4 in main-sequence galaxies. We can reproduce this evolution with simple models that account for the decrease in the gas metallicity with redshift. No evolution of ⟨ U ⟩ with redshift is found in strong starbursts. We then deduced the evolution of the molecular gas fraction (defined here as M_(mol)/(M_(mol)+M_⋆)) with redshift and found a similar, steeply increasing trend for both samples. At z ~ 4, this fraction reaches ~60%. The average position of the main-sequence galaxies is on the locus of the local, normal star-forming disks in the integrated Schmidt-Kennicutt diagram (star formation rate versus mass of molecular gas), suggesting that the bulk of the star formation up to z = 4 is dominated by secular processes.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Béthermin, Matthieu0000-0002-3915-2015
Daddi, Emanuele0000-0002-3331-9590
Magdis, Georgios0000-0002-4872-2294
Lagos, Claudia0000-0003-3021-8564
Sargent, Mark0000-0003-1033-9684
Aussel, Herve0000-0002-1371-5705
Bertoldi, Frank0000-0002-1707-1775
Buat, Véronique0000-0003-3441-903X
Galametz, Maud0000-0002-0283-8689
Heinis, Sébastien0000-0002-2320-0035
Ilbert, Olivier0000-0002-7303-4397
Karim, Alexander0000-0002-8414-9579
Koekemoer, Anton0000-0002-6610-2048
Lacey, Cedric0000-0001-9016-5332
Navarrete, Felipe0000-0002-9508-2680
Pannella, Maurilio0000-0003-3738-3976
Schreiber, Corentin0000-0003-0942-5198
Smolčić, Vernesa0000-0002-3893-8614
Additional Information:© 2015 ESO. Received: 19 September 2014. Accepted: 11 November 2014. Published online 07 January 2015. We thank the anonymous referee for providing constructive comments. We acknowledge Morgane Cousin, Nick Lee, Nick Scoville, and Christian Maier for their interesting discussions/suggestions, Laure Ciesla for providing an electronic table of the physical properties of the HRS sample, and Amélie Saintonge for providing her compilation of data. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the entire COSMOS collaboration consisting of more than 100 scientists. The HST COSMOS program was supported through NASA grant HST-GO-09822. More information on the COSMOS survey is available at ased on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by TERAPIX and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the Ultra VISTA consortium. M.B., E.D., and M.S. acknowledge the support of the ERC-StG UPGAL 240039 and ANR-08-JCJC-0008 grants. A.K. acknowledges support by the Collaborative Research Council 956, sub-project A1, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)240039
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-08-JCJC-0008
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)956
Subject Keywords:galaxies: formation, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: star formation, infrared: galaxies, submillimeter: galaxies
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20150413-082134947
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Matthieu Béthermin, Emanuele Daddi, Georgios Magdis, Claudia Lagos, Mark Sargent, Marcus Albrecht, Hervé Aussel, Frank Bertoldi, Véronique Buat, Maud Galametz, Sébastien Heinis, Olivier Ilbert, Alexander Karim, Anton Koekemoer, Cedric Lacey, Emeric Le Floc’h, Felipe Navarrete, Maurilio Pannella, Corentin Schreiber, Vernesa Smolčić, Myrto Symeonidis and Marco Viero A&A 573 A113 (2015) DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:56585
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:13 Apr 2015 16:34
Last Modified:11 Dec 2020 22:48

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