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Upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NO_x-impacted convection: Smoke ingestion case study from the DC3 campaign

Apel, E. C. and Wennberg, P. O. and Crounse, J. D. (2015) Upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NO_x-impacted convection: Smoke ingestion case study from the DC3 campaign. Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres, 120 (6). pp. 2505-2523. ISSN 2169-897X.

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As part of the Deep Convective Cloud and Chemistry (DC3) experiment, the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Gulfstream-V (GV) and NASA DC-8 research aircraft probed the chemical composition of the inflow and outflow of two convective storms (north storm, NS, south storm, SS) originating in the Colorado region on 22 June 2012, a time when the High Park wildfire was active in the area. A wide range of trace species were measured on board both aircraft including biomass burning (BB) tracers hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and acetonitrile (ACN). Acrolein, a much shorter lived tracer for BB, was also quantified on the GV. The data demonstrated that the NS had ingested fresh smoke from the High Park fire and as a consequence had a higher VOC OH reactivity than the SS. The SS lofted aged fire tracers along with other boundary layer ozone precursors and was more impacted by lightning NO_x (LNO_x) than the NS. The NCAR master mechanism box model was initialized with measurements made in the outflow of the two storms. The NS and SS were predicted to produce 11 and 14 ppbv of O_3, respectively, downwind of the storm over 2 days. Sensitivity tests revealed that the ozone production potential of the SS was highly dependent on LNO_x. Normalized excess mixing ratios, ΔX/ΔCO, for HCN and ACN were determined in both the fire plume and the storm outflow and found to be 7.0 ± 0.5 and 2.3 ± 0.5 pptv ppbv^(−1), respectively, and 1.4 ± 0.3 pptv ppbv^(−1) for acrolein in the outflow only.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Wennberg, P. O.0000-0002-6126-3854
Crounse, J. D.0000-0001-5443-729X
Additional Information:© 2015 American Geophysical Union. Received 2 JUN 2014; Accepted 31 JAN 2015; Accepted article online 6 FEB 2015; Published online 21 MAR 2015. The data used in this paper are available from and The NCAR MM can be downloaded from the NCAR community data portal ( The authors thank the crew and support team of the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft and Christine Wiedinmyer, Jeff Stith, and Shawn Honomichl for their helpful comments and discussion. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:storm convective outflow; biomass burning emission ratios; acrolein; hydrogen cyanide (HCN); acetonitrile (CH3CN); deep convective cloud and chemistry experiment (DC3)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20150515-091930292
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Official Citation:Apel, E. C., R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Hills, N. J. Blake, M. C. Barth, A. Weinheimer, C. Cantrell, S. A. Rutledge, B. Basarab, J. Crawford, G. Diskin, C. R. Homeyer, T. Campos, F. Flocke, A. Fried, D. R. Blake, W. Brune, I. Pollack, J. Peischl, T. Ryerson, P. O. Wennberg, J. D. Crounse, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, G. Huey, B. Heikes, D. O'Sullivan, and D. D. Riemer (2015), Upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx-impacted convection: Smoke ingestion case study from the DC3 campaign. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 2505–2523. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022121
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:57558
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:15 May 2015 18:28
Last Modified:06 Apr 2017 20:40

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