A Caltech Library Service

Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication

Cumpston, Brian H. and Ananthavel, Sundaravel P. and Barlow, Stephen and Dyer, Daniel L. and Ehrlich, Jeffrey E. and Erskine, Lael L. and Heikal, Ahmed A. and Kuebler, Stephen M. and Lee, I. Y. Sandy and McCord-Maughon, Dianne and Qin, Jinqui and Röckel, Harald and Rumi, Mariacristina and Wu, Xiang-Li and Marder, Seth R. and Perry, Joseph W. (1999) Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication. Nature, 398 (6722). pp. 51-54. ISSN 0028-0836. doi:10.1038/17989.

Full text is not posted in this repository. Consult Related URLs below.

Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Two-photon excitation provides a means of activating chemical or physical processes with high spatial resolution in three dimensions and has made possible the development of three-dimensional fluorescence imaging, optical data storage and lithographic microfabrication. These applications take advantage of the fact that the two-photon absorption probability depends quadratically on intensity, so under tight-focusing conditions, the absorption is confined at the focus to a volume of order λ (where λ is the laser wavelength). Any subsequent process, such as fluorescence or a photoinduced chemical reaction, is also localized in this small volume. Although three-dimensional data storage and microfabrication have been illustrated using two-photon-initiated polymerization of resins incorporating conventional ultraviolet-absorbing initiators, such photopolymer systems exhibit low photosensitivity as the initiators have small two-photon absorption cross-sections (delta). Consequently, this approach requires high laser power, and its widespread use remains impractical. Here we report on a class of π;-conjugated compounds that exhibit large δ (as high as 1, 250 times 10^-50 cm4 s per photon) and enhanced two-photon sensitivity relative to ultraviolet initiators. Two-photon excitable resins based on these new initiators have been developed and used to demonstrate a scheme for three-dimensional data storage which permits fluorescent and refractive read-out, and the fabrication of three-dimensional micro-optical and micromechanical structures, including photonic-bandgap-type structures.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access
Additional Information:© 1999 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Received 2 November 1998; accepted 11 January 1999. We thank S. Fraser and the Biological Imaging Center, California Institute of Technology, for use of a two-photon scanning laser microscope system, and S. Thayumanavan for synthetic precursors used in this work. H.R. thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung for a postdoctoral fellowship through the Theodore Lynen Program. This work was supported by the Ballistic Missile Defense Initiative Organization (at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and by the Office of Naval Research (through CAMP at the University of Arizona), the NSF and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (at the California Institute of Technology).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Alexander von Humboldt StiftungUNSPECIFIED
Ballistic Missile Defense Initiative OrganizationUNSPECIFIED
Office of Naval Research (ONR)UNSPECIFIED
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)UNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:6722
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20150610-111414630
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Cumpston, B. H., Ananthavel, S. P., Barlow, S., Dyer, D. L., Ehrlich, J. E., Erskine, L. L., . . . Perry, J. W. (1999). Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication. [10.1038/17989]. Nature, 398(6722), 51-54.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:58160
Deposited On:11 Jun 2015 03:36
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 22:00

Repository Staff Only: item control page