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Studies of concentrated electrolyte solutions using the electrodynamic balance. 1. Water activities for single-electrolyte solutions

Cohen, Mark D. and Flagan, Richard C. and Seinfeld, John H. (1987) Studies of concentrated electrolyte solutions using the electrodynamic balance. 1. Water activities for single-electrolyte solutions. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 91 (17). pp. 4563-4574. ISSN 0022-3654. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20150805-103257066

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Abstract

An electrodynamic balance apparatus has been used to suspend single, 20-µm-diameter, charged droplets of aqueous salt solutions in a humid environment. From measurements of the humidity surrounding the droplet and the relative mass of the particle in its wet and dry states, the dependence of water activity on solute concentration was determined for aqueous solutions of the following salts at 20^oC: NaCl, NaBr, KCl, KBr, NH_4Cl, Na_2SO_4, (NH_4)_2SO4, CaC1_2, MnC1_2, and FeC1_3. This technique allowed the thermodynamics of highly supersaturated solutions to be studied, and for most of the salts, the measurements were made to higher concentrations than have previously been reported at comparable temperatures. The dependence of the solute activity coefficient on concentration was calculated for each of the salts, and the features of this dependence are discussed in relationship to ionic hydration and association. Several semiempirical electrolyte solution models were tested against the data, and it was found that salt-specific model parameters estimated from low-concentration data could not be reliably used to predict the solution behavior at high concentrations. However, with estimated parameters based on the full range of the data, the models were able to represent the experimental data to within the uncertainty in the measurements.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j100301a029DOIArticle
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/j100301a029PublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Flagan, Richard C.0000-0001-5690-770X
Seinfeld, John H.0000-0003-1344-4068
Additional Information:© 1987 American Chemical Society. (Received: December 5, 1986) This work was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Grant No. R-810857. The authors thank Prof. Steven Arnold of the Polytechnic Institute of New York for many useful discussions and for the particle injector used in this work.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)R-810857
Issue or Number:17
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20150805-103257066
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20150805-103257066
Official Citation:Studies of concentrated electrolyte solutions using the electrodynamic balance. 1. Water activities for single-electrolyte solutions Mark D. Cohen, Richard C. Flagan, and John H. Seinfeld The Journal of Physical Chemistry 1987 91 (17), 4563-4574 DOI: 10.1021/j100301a029
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:59203
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Irina Meininger
Deposited On:08 Sep 2015 20:01
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 08:44

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