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Planck 2015 results. XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity

Ade, P. A. R. and Bock, J. J. and Crill, B. P. and Doré, O. and Helou, G. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Pearson, T. J. and Prézeau, G. and Rocha, G. and Seiffert, M. D. and McGehee, P. and Rusholme, B. (2016) Planck 2015 results. XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 594 . Art. No. A14. ISSN 0004-6361. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20150918-080156740

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Abstract

We study the implications of Planck data for models of dark energy (DE) and modified gravity (MG) beyond the standard cosmological constant scenario. We start with cases where the DE only directly affects the background evolution, considering Taylor expansions of the equation of state w(a), as well as principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve present constraints and find that it has to be below ~2% (at 95% confidence) of the critical density, even when forced to play a role for z < 50 only. We then move to general parameterizations of the DE or MG perturbations that encompass both effective field theories and the phenomenology of gravitational potentials in MG models. Lastly, we test a range of specific models, such as k-essence, f(R) theories, and coupled DE. In addition to the latest Planck data, for our main analyses, we use background constraints from baryonic acoustic oscillations, type-Ia supernovae, and local measurements of the Hubble constant. We further show the impact of measurements of the cosmological perturbations, such as redshift-space distortions and weak gravitational lensing. These additional probes are important tools for testing MG models and for breaking degeneracies that are still present in the combination of Planck and background data sets. All results that include only background parameterizations (expansion of the equation of state, early DE, general potentials in minimally-coupled scalar fields or principal component analysis) are in agreement with ΛCDM. When testing models that also change perturbations (even when the background is fixed to ΛCDM), some tensions appear in a few scenarios: the maximum one found is ~2σ for Planck TT+lowP when parameterizing observables related to the gravitational potentials with a chosen time dependence; the tension increases to, at most, 3σ when external data sets are included. It however disappears when including CMB lensing.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525814DOIArticle
http://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2016/10/aa25814-15/aa25814-15.htmlPublisherArticle
http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.01590arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Ade, P. A. R.0000-0002-5127-0401
Bock, J. J.0000-0002-5710-5212
Crill, B. P.0000-0002-4650-8518
Doré, O.0000-0002-5009-7563
Helou, G.0000-0003-3367-3415
Pearson, T. J.0000-0001-5213-6231
Rocha, G.0000-0002-4150-8076
McGehee, P.0000-0003-0948-6716
Rusholme, B.0000-0001-7648-4142
Additional Information:© 2016 ESO. Received 5 February 2015; Accepted 19 February 2016; Published online 20 September 2016. It is a pleasure to thank Luca Amendola, Emilio Bellini, Diego Blas, Sarah Bridle, Noemi Frusciante, Catherine Heymans, Alireza Hojjati, Bin Hu, Thomas Kitching, Niall MacCrann, Marco Raveri, Ignacy Sawicki, Alessandra Silvestri, Fergus Simpson, Christof Wetterich and Gongbo Zhao for interesting discussions on theories, external data sets and numerical codes. Part of the analysis for this paper was run on the Andromeda and Perseus clusters of the University of Geneva and on WestGrid computers in Canada. We deeply thank Andreas Malaspinas for invaluable help with the Andromeda and Perseus Clusters. This research was partly funded by the DFG TransRegio TRR33 grant on “The Dark Universe” and by the Swiss NSF. The Planck Collaboration acknowledges the support of: ESA; CNES and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MINECO, JA, and RES (Spain); Tekes, AoF, and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada); DTU Space (Denmark); SER/SSO (Switzerland); RCN (Norway); SFI (Ireland); FCT/MCTES (Portugal); ERC and PRACE (EU). A description of the Planck Collaboration and a list of its members, indicating which technical or scientific activities they have been involved in, can be found at http://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/planck/planck-collaboration.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)TRR33
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National du Patrimoine (INP)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
NASAUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)UNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaUNSPECIFIED
RES (Spain)UNSPECIFIED
Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes)UNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
Finnish IT Center for Science (CSC)UNSPECIFIED
Deutschen Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck-GesellschaftUNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
DTU Space (Denmark)UNSPECIFIED
State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SER)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss Space Office (SSO)UNSPECIFIED
Research Council of NorwayUNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)UNSPECIFIED
PRACE (EU)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:dark energy / cosmic background radiation / cosmology: theory / gravitation
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20150918-080156740
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20150918-080156740
Official Citation:Planck Collaboration, P. A. R. Ade, N. Aghanim, M. Arnaud, M. Ashdown, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, N. Bartolo, E. Battaner, R. Battye, K. Benabed, A. Benoît, A. Benoit-Lévy, J.-P. Bernard, M. Bersanelli, P. Bielewicz, J. J. Bock, A. Bonaldi, L. Bonavera, J. R. Bond, J. Borrill, F. R. Bouchet, M. Bucher, C. Burigana, R. C. Butler, E. Calabrese, J.-F. Cardoso, A. Catalano, A. Challinor, A. Chamballu, H. C. Chiang, P. R. Christensen, S. Church, D. L. Clements, S. Colombi, L. P. L. Colombo, C. Combet, F. Couchot, A. Coulais, B. P. Crill, A. Curto, F. Cuttaia, L. Danese, R. D. Davies, R. J. Davis, P. de Bernardis, A. de Rosa, G. de Zotti, J. Delabrouille, F.-X. Désert, J. M. Diego, H. Dole, S. Donzelli, O. Doré, M. Douspis, A. Ducout, X. Dupac, G. Efstathiou, F. Elsner, T. A. Enßlin, H. K. Eriksen, J. Fergusson, F. Finelli, O. Forni, M. Frailis, A. A. Fraisse, E. Franceschi, A. Frejsel, S. Galeotta, S. Galli, K. Ganga, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, E. Gjerløw, J. González-Nuevo, K. M. Górski, S. Gratton, A. Gregorio, A. Gruppuso, J. E. Gudmundsson, F. K. Hansen, D. Hanson, D. L. Harrison, A. Heavens, G. Helou, S. Henrot-Versillé, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, D. Herranz, S. R. Hildebrandt, E. Hivon, M. Hobson, W. A. Holmes, A. Hornstrup, W. Hovest, Z. Huang, K. M. Huffenberger, G. Hurier, A. H. Jaffe, T. R. Jaffe, W. C. Jones, M. Juvela, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, T. S. Kisner, J. Knoche, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, G. Lagache, A. Lähteenmäki, J.-M. Lamarre, A. Lasenby, M. Lattanzi, C. R. Lawrence, R. Leonardi, J. Lesgourgues, F. Levrier, A. Lewis, M. Liguori, P. B. Lilje, M. Linden-Vørnle, M. López-Caniego, P. M. Lubin, Y.-Z. Ma, J. F. Macías-Pérez, G. Maggio, D. Maino, N. Mandolesi, A. Mangilli, A. Marchini, M. Maris, P. G. Martin, M. Martinelli, E. Martínez-González, S. Masi, S. Matarrese, P. McGehee, P. R. Meinhold, A. Melchiorri, L. Mendes, A. Mennella, M. Migliaccio, S. Mitra, M.-A. Miville-Deschênes, A. Moneti, L. Montier, G. Morgante, D. Mortlock, A. Moss, D. Munshi, J. A. Murphy, A. Narimani, P. Naselsky, F. Nati, P. Natoli, C. B. Netterfield, H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen, F. Noviello, D. Novikov, I. Novikov, C. A. Oxborrow, F. Paci, L. Pagano, F. Pajot, D. Paoletti, F. Pasian, G. Patanchon, T. J. Pearson, O. Perdereau, L. Perotto, F. Perrotta, V. Pettorino, F. Piacentini, M. Piat, E. Pierpaoli, D. Pietrobon, S. Plaszczynski, E. Pointecouteau, G. Polenta, L. Popa, G. W. Pratt, G. Prézeau, S. Prunet, J.-L. Puget, J. P. Rachen, W. T. Reach, R. Rebolo, M. Reinecke, M. Remazeilles, C. Renault, A. Renzi, I. Ristorcelli, G. Rocha, C. Rosset, M. Rossetti, G. Roudier, M. Rowan-Robinson, J. A. Rubiño-Martín, B. Rusholme, V. Salvatelli, M. Sandri, D. Santos, M. Savelainen, G. Savini, B. M. Schaefer, D. Scott, M. D. Seiffert, E. P. S. Shellard, L. D. Spencer, V. Stolyarov, R. Stompor, R. Sudiwala, R. Sunyaev, D. Sutton, A.-S. Suur-Uski, J.-F. Sygnet, J. A. Tauber, L. Terenzi, L. Toffolatti, M. Tomasi, M. Tristram, M. Tucci, J. Tuovinen, L. Valenziano, J. Valiviita, B. Van Tent, M. Viel, P. Vielva, F. Villa, L. A. Wade, B. D. Wandelt, I. K. Wehus, M. White, D. Yvon, A. Zacchei and A. Zonca A&A, 594 (2016) A14 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525814
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ID Code:60314
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:18 Sep 2015 19:46
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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