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Color embeddings, charge assignments, and proton stability in unified gauge theories

Gell-Mann, M. and Ramond, P. and Slansky, R. (1978) Color embeddings, charge assignments, and proton stability in unified gauge theories. Reviews of Modern Physics, 50 (4). pp. 721-744. ISSN 0034-6861. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20150923-155202251

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Abstract

Three problems in hypothetical unified theories of electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions are discussed here. First, the problem of embedding color in any simple gauge group is solved, and a complete classification of theories where the fermion color is restricted to 1^c, 3^c, and 3^c of SU_3^c is given. Generalizations are also indicated. Second, an unbroken U_1 generated by electric charge is embedded into each of the above theories and the charge assignments analyzed. Third, the general problem of stabilizing the proton by a suitable atomic mass number A is studied for the same set of theories. It is always possible to define A if the gauge group is not too small. In many of these theories there must be fermions with weird values of A: leptons with A≠0 and quarks with A≠1/3. Examples are discussed. Some future directions of research are indicated.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.50.721DOIArticle
http://journals.aps.org/rmp/abstract/10.1103/RevModPhys.50.721PublisherArticle
Additional Information:© 1978 American Physical Society. Work supported by the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration under contract No. W-7405-ENG-36 and contract No. EY76-C-03-0068, and by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. We wish to thank many friends and colleagues at LASL, Aspen Center for Physics, and Caltech for stimulating conversations, especially G. Stephenson, T. Goldman, and R. Roskies, We gratefully acknowledge the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics, where some of the work was performed. The typing of several drafts of this paper was cheerfully and excellently done by Marian Martinez. We also wish to thank the CERN Theory Division Secretariat for kindly assisting us in preparing the final draft.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)W-7405-ENG-36
Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)EY76-C-03-0068
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20150923-155202251
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20150923-155202251
Official Citation:Color embeddings, charge assignments, and proton stability in unified gauge theories M. Gell-Mann, P. Ramond, and R. Slansky Rev. Mod. Phys. 50, 721 (1978) – Published 1 October 1978
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:60455
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:25 Sep 2015 03:41
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 08:57

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