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Focusing through dynamic tissue with millisecond digital optical phase conjugation

Wang, Daifa and Zhou, Edward Haojiang and Brake, Joshua and Ruan, Haowen and Jang, Mooseok and Yang, Changhuei (2015) Focusing through dynamic tissue with millisecond digital optical phase conjugation. Optica, 2 (8). pp. 728-735. ISSN 2334-2536. PMCID PMC4677392.

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Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) is a new technique employed in wavefront shaping and phase conjugation for focusing light through or within scattering media such as biological tissues. DOPC is particularly attractive as it intrinsically achieves a high fluence reflectivity in comparison to nonlinear optical approaches. However, the slow refresh rate of liquid crystal spatial light modulators and limitations imposed by computer data transfer speeds have thus far made it difficult for DOPC to achieve a playback latency of shorter than ∼200  ms and, therefore, prevented DOPC from being practically applied to thick living samples. In this paper, we report a novel DOPC system that is capable of 5.3 ms playback latency. This speed improvement of almost 2 orders of magnitude is achieved by using a digital micromirror device, field programmable gate array (FPGA) processing, and a single-shot binary phase retrieval technique. With this system, we are able to focus through 2.3 mm living mouse skin with blood flowing through it (decorrelation time ∼30  ms) and demonstrate that the focus can be maintained indefinitely—an important technological milestone that has not been previously reported, to the best of our knowledge.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Zhou, Edward Haojiang0000-0001-7020-9502
Yang, Changhuei0000-0001-8791-0354
Additional Information:© 2015 Optical Society of America. Received 18 May 2015; revised 16 July 2015; accepted 21 July 2015 (Doc. ID 240996); published 7 August 2015. China Scholarship Council (CSC); GIST-Caltech (CG2012); National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) (1U01NS090577-01); National Institutes of Health (NIH) (1DP2OD007307-01). The authors would like to thank Benjamin Judkewitz and Roarke Horstmeyer for their suggestions and discussion.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
China Scholarship CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:8
Classification Code:OCIS codes: (110.0113) Imaging through turbid media; (070.5040) Phase conjugation; (110.0180) Microscopy
PubMed Central ID:PMC4677392
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20150924-074000986
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Daifa Wang, Edward Haojiang Zhou, Joshua Brake, Haowen Ruan, Mooseok Jang, and Changhuei Yang, "Focusing through dynamic tissue with millisecond digital optical phase conjugation," Optica 2, 728-735 (2015)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:60460
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:24 Sep 2015 20:36
Last Modified:23 Apr 2020 22:37

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