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Novel Approaches to Polynuclear Platinum Pro-Drugs. Selective Release of Cytotoxic Platinum−Spermidine Species through Hydrolytic Cleavage of Carbamates

Hegmans, Alexander and Qu, Yun and Kelland, Lloyd R. and Roberts, John D. and Farrell, Nicholas (2001) Novel Approaches to Polynuclear Platinum Pro-Drugs. Selective Release of Cytotoxic Platinum−Spermidine Species through Hydrolytic Cleavage of Carbamates. Inorganic Chemistry, 40 (24). pp. 6108-6114. ISSN 0020-1669. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20151001-101404396

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Abstract

BBR3464 is a novel trinuclear platinum drug currently in Phase II clinical trials. Polyamine-bridged dinuclear platinum compounds as represented by [{trans-Pt(NH_3)_2Cl}_2-μ-spermidine-N^1,N^8]Cl_3 (1) are highly interesting second-generation analogues of BBR3464 because the hydrogen-bonding and electrostatic contributions of the central platinum−amine group in BBR3464 are replicated by the free, noncoordinated “central” quaternary nitrogens of the linear polyamine linker while the presence of two separate Pt−Cl bonds maintains the bifunctional binding mode on the DNA adducts. Preclinical investigations confirm the potency of these species with cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range. This remarkable potency results in a relatively narrow therapeutic index. To enhance the therapeutic index of these drugs, we investigated the potential for “pro-drug” delivery of less toxic and better tolerated derivatives such as the compounds [{trans-Pt(NH_3)_2Cl}_2-μ-N^4-R-spermidine-N_1,N_8]Cl_2 where N^4-R represents BOC (tert-butyl), CBz (benzyl), and Fmoc (fluorenylmethyl) carbamate blocking groups, 2−4, respectively. The bulky Fmoc derivative showed evidence for conformational isomers by ^1H NMR spectroscopy due to the inequivalence of the two n-propyl and n-butyl side chains of the spermidine moiety. The rate constants for hydrolysis and release of 1 were calculated. Release of cytotoxic 1 at physiologically relevant pH followed the order 4 > 2 > 3. The calculated values for 4 (pH 5, 6.0(±3.9) × 10^(-10) s^(-1); pH 6, 6.5(±0.2) × 10^(-9) s^(-1); pH 7, 6.0(±0.2) × 10^(-8) s^(-1); pH 8, 1.6(±0.1) × 10^(-7) s^(-1)) show a more pronounced pH dependence compared to 2 (pH 5, 4.6(±0.1) × 10^(-8) s^(-1; pH 6, 4.2(±0.1) × 10^(-8) s^(-1); pH 7, 3.2(±0.1) × 10-8 s-1). Preliminary biological assays of cellular uptake and cytotoxicity confirm the utility of the pro-drug concept. While blocked-polyamine compounds such as 2−4 are, in general, 2−3 orders of magnitude less cytotoxic than 1, there is significant cell type variability. Specifically, the Fmoc derivative 4 showed significantly enhanced cytotoxicity warranting further study of the pro-drug concept for greater selectivity and/or oral delivery.


Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic010509aDOIArticle
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ic010509aPublisherArticle
Additional Information:© 2001 American Chemical Society. Received May 15, 2001. Publication Date (Web): October 20, 2001. This research has been supported by operating grants from The National Institutes of Health (RO1-CA78754) and The American Cancer Society (RPG89-002-11-CDD).
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NIHRO1-CA78754
American Cancer SocietyRPG89-002-11-CDD
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20151001-101404396
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20151001-101404396
Official Citation:Novel Approaches to Polynuclear Platinum Pro-Drugs. Selective Release of Cytotoxic Platinum−Spermidine Species through Hydrolytic Cleavage of Carbamates Alexander Hegmans,Yun Qu, Lloyd R. Kelland, John D. Roberts, and Nicholas Farrell Inorganic Chemistry 2001 40 (24), 6108-6114 DOI: 10.1021/ic010509a
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:60658
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:02 Oct 2015 16:17
Last Modified:02 Oct 2015 16:17

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