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First NuSTAR Observations of Mrk 501 within a Radio to TeV Multi-Instrument Campaign

Furniss, A. K. and Noda, K. and Boggs, S. and Chiang, J. and Christensen, F. and Craig, W. and Giommi, P. and Hailey, C. and Harrison, F. and Madejski, G. and Nalewajko, K. and Perri, M. and Stern, D. and Urry, M. and Verrecchia, P. and Zhang, W. (2015) First NuSTAR Observations of Mrk 501 within a Radio to TeV Multi-Instrument Campaign. Astrophysical Journal, 812 (1). Art. No. 65. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/1/65.

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We report on simultaneous broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar Markarian 501 between 1 April and 10 August 2013, including the first detailed characterization of the synchrotron peak with Swift and NuSTAR. During the campaign, the nearby BL Lac object was observed in both a quiescent and an elevated state. The broadband campaign includes observations with NuSTAR, MAGIC, VERITAS, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), Swift X-ray Telescope and UV Optical Telescope, various ground-based optical instruments, including the GASP-WEBT program, as well as radio observations by OVRO, Metsähovi and the F-Gamma consortium. Some of the MAGIC observations were affected by a sand layer from the Saharan desert, and had to be corrected using event-by-event corrections derived with a LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) facility. This is the first time that LIDAR information is used to produce a physics result with Cherenkov Telescope data taken during adverse atmospheric conditions, and hence sets a precedent for the current and future ground-based gamma-ray instruments. The NuSTAR instrument provides unprecedented sensitivity in hard X-rays, showing the source to display a spectral energy distribution between 3 and 79 keV consistent with a log-parabolic spectrum and hard X-ray variability on hour timescales. None (of the four extended NuSTAR observations) shows evidence of the onset of inverse-Compton emission at hard X-ray energies. We apply a single-zone equilibrium synchrotron self-Compton model to five simultaneous broadband spectral energy distributions. We find that the synchrotron self-Compton model can reproduce the observed broadband states through a decrease in the magnetic field strength coinciding with an increase in the luminosity and hardness of the relativistic leptons responsible for the high-energy emission.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Boggs, S.0000-0001-9567-4224
Christensen, F.0000-0001-5679-1946
Harrison, F.0000-0003-2992-8024
Stern, D.0000-0003-2686-9241
Urry, M.0000-0002-0745-9792
Zhang, W.0000-0002-1426-9698
Additional Information:© 2015. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 April 22; accepted 2015 September 5; published 2015 October 8. This work was supported under NASA Contract No. NNG08FD60C, and made use of data from the NuSTAR mission, a project led by the California Institute of Technology, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We thank the NuSTAR Operations, Software and Calibration teams for support with the execution and analysis of these observations. This research has made use of the NuSTAR Data Analysis Software (NuSTARDAS) jointly developed by the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC, Italy) and the California Institute of Technology (USA). The MAGIC Collaboration would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN and INAF, the Swiss National Fund SNF, the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO, and the Japanese JSPS and MEXT is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa SEV-2012-0234, CPAN CSD2007-00042, and MultiDark CSD2009-00064 projects of the Spanish Consolider-Ingenio 2010 programme, by grant 268740 of the Academy of Finland, by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project 09/176 and the University of Rijeka Project, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, and by the Polish MNiSzW grant 745/N-HESS-MAGIC/2010/0. This research is also supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the U.S. National Science Foundation, and the Smithsonian Institution, by NSERC in Canada, by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI 10/RFP/AST2748), and by STFC in the U.K. We acknowledge the excellent work of the technical support staff at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory and at the collaborating institutions in the construction and operation of the VERITAS instrument. The VERITAS Collaboration is grateful to Trevor Weekes for his seminal contributions and leadership in the field of VHE gamma-ray astrophysics, which made this study possible. The Fermi LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d'Études Spatiales in France. We thank the Swift team duty scientists and science planners and we acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive. This research has made use of the Swift XRT Data Analysis Software (XRTDAS) developed under the responsibility of the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC), Italy. This research is partly based on observations with the 100-m telescope of the MPIfR (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie) at Effelsberg and with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). V. Karamanavis and I. Myserlis are funded by the International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne. The OVRO 40-m monitoring program is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G and NNX11A043G, and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911. T.G. acknowledges support from Istanbul University (Project numbers 49429 and 48285), Bilim Akademisi (BAGEP program) and TUBITAK (project numbers 13AT100-431, 13AT100-466, and 13AT60-430). St. Petersburg University team acknowledges support from Russian RFBR grant 15-02-00949 and St. Petersburg University research grant 6.38.335.2015. The research at Boston University (BU) was funded in part by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant NNX14AQ58G and Swift Guest Investigator grant NNX14AI96G. The PRISM camera at Lowell Observatory was developed by K. Janes et al. at BU and Lowell Observatory, with funding from the NSF, BU, and Lowell Observatory. This research was partially supported by Scientific Research Fund of the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Sciences under grant DO 02-137 (BIn-13/09). The Skinakas Observatory is a collaborative project of the University of Crete, the Foundation for Research and Technology—Hellas, and the Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik. The Abastumani Observatory team acknowledges financial support by the by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation under contract FR/577/6-320/13. We are grateful to the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) for assisting us with some of the optical data acquisition. G. Damljanovic and O. Vince gratefully acknowledge the observing grant support from the Institute of Astronomy and Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. This work is in accordance with the Projects No 176011 ("Dynamics and kinematics of celestial bodies and systems"), No 176004 ("Stellar physics") and No 176021 ("Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations") supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. Facilities: NuSTAR - The NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) mission, MAGIC - Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescope, VERITAS - Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System, Fermi LAT - , Swift XRT/UVOT - , AAVSOnet - , FLWO - , WEBT, CrAO: 1.25m, Perkins - Lowell Observatory's 72in Perkins Telescope, Rozhen - , Skinakas - , OVRO - , Metsahovi - .
Group:NuSTAR, Space Radiation Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2012-0234
Academy of Finland268740
Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ)09/176
University of Rijeka13.
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB823/C4
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB876/C3
MNiSW (Poland)745/N-HESS-MAGIC/2010/0
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Smithsonian InstitutionUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandSFI 10/ RFP/AST2748
Institut national des sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN)UNSPECIFIED
International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Istanbul University49429
Istanbul University48285
Bilim AkademisiUNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic Research15-02-00949
St. Petersburg University6.38.335.2015
Boston UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Lowell ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
Scientific Research Fund of the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and SciencesDO 02-137 (BIn-13/09)
Shota Rustaveli National Science FoundationFR/577/6-320/13
Astronomy and Rozhen National Astronomical ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
Bulgarian Academy of SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (Serbia)176011
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (Serbia)176004
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (Serbia)176021
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:BL Lacertae objects: general; galaxies: individual (Markarian 501) ; X-rays: galaxies
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
Space Radiation Laboratory2015-28
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20151022-142325988
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:A. Furniss et al 2015 ApJ 812 65
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:61449
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:22 Oct 2015 21:56
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 22:49

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