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Particle suspension reactors and materials for solar-driven water splitting

Fabian, David M. and Hu, Shu and Singh, Nirala and Houle, Frances A. and Hisatomi, Takashi and Domen, Kazunari and Osterloh, Frank E. and Ardo, Shane (2015) Particle suspension reactors and materials for solar-driven water splitting. Energy and Environmental Science, 8 (10). pp. 2825-2850. ISSN 1754-5692. doi:10.1039/C5EE01434D.

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Reactors based on particle suspensions for the capture, conversion, storage, and use of solar energy as H_2 are projected to be cost-competitive with fossil fuels. In light of this, this review paper summarizes state-of-the-art particle light absorbers and cocatalysts as suspensions (photocatalysts) that demonstrate visible-light-driven water splitting on the laboratory scale. Also presented are reactor descriptions, theoretical considerations particular to particle suspension reactors, and efficiency and performance characterization metrics. Opportunities for targeted research, analysis, and development of reactor designs are highlighted.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Hu, Shu0000-0002-5041-0169
Houle, Frances A.0000-0001-5571-2548
Ardo, Shane0000-0001-7162-6826
Additional Information:© 2015 Royal Society of Chemistry. Received 8th May 2015, Accepted 13th July 2015. The authors thank Dr. Eric Miller for the inspiration to compile this review, and the members of the U.S. Department of Energy's Photoelectrochemical Working Group and Task 35 (Renewable Hydrogen) of the International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement for helpful comments, suggestions, and discussions, specifically Prof. Ryu Abe (Kyoto University), Prof. Jason Baxter (Drexel University), Prof. Jiming Bao (University of Houston), Prof. Dan Esposito (Columbia University), Dr. Arnold Forman (Bio-Logic), Prof. Sophia Haussener (École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne), Prof. Akihiko Kudo (Tokyo University of Science), Dr. Kazuhiko Maeda (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Dr. Sixto Malato (Plataforma Solar de Almería), Dr. Steve Reece (Sun Catalytix), and Prof. Wilson Smith (Delft University of Technology). D.M.F. acknowledges support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1321846. This material is based upon work performed by the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, as follows: work by S.H. and F.A.H. was supported through the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-SC0004993. N.S. is supported by the University of California Santa Barbara Air Products Fellowship and by the National Science Foundation (EFRI-1038234). T.H. and K.D. acknowledge financial support via a Grant-in-Aids for Specially Promoted Research (no. 23000009) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). F.E.O. thanks Research Corporation for Science Advancement for a Scialog award and the National Science Foundation under CHE – 1152250 and CBET 1133099. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. S.A. acknowledges support from the Department of Chemistry and the School of Physical Sciences at the University of California Irvine and the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-EE0006963. A summary version of this review paper (DOI: 10.2172/1179198), and associated summary tables that will be updated as the field progresses, will be available on the working group website (
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-SC0004993
University of California, Santa BarbaraUNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)23000009
University of California, IrvineUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-EE0006963
Issue or Number:10
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20151030-125812115
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Official Citation:Particle suspension reactors and materials for solar-driven water splitting David M. Fabian, Shu Hu, Nirala Singh, Frances A. Houle, Takashi Hisatomi, Kazunari Domen, Frank E. Osterloh and Shane Ardo Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2825-2850 DOI: 10.1039/C5EE01434D
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:61744
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:02 Nov 2015 21:15
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 22:53

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