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Small Perturbations in the Unsteady Flow of a Rarefied Gas Based on Grad's Thirteen Moment Approximation

Ai, Daniel Kwoh-i (1960) Small Perturbations in the Unsteady Flow of a Rarefied Gas Based on Grad's Thirteen Moment Approximation. Hypersonic Research Project Memorandum, 59. California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, CA. (Unpublished) http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20151104-170004041

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Abstract

In this paper, the unsteady one-dimensional flow of a compressible, viscous and heat conducting fluid is treated, based on linearized Grad's thirteen moment equations. The fluid, initially at rest, is set into motion by some small external disturbances. Our interest is to examine the nature of all the responses. The fluid field extends to infinity in both directions; thus no length is involved, and also there is no solid wall boundary existing in the problem. The nature of the external disturbances is restricted to having a unit impulse in the momentum equation and a unit heat addition in the energy equation. The disturbances are located on an infinite plane normal to the flow direction; and the responses induced correspond to fundamental solutions of the problem. The method of Laplace transforms is applied, and the inverse transforms of all quantities are obtained in integral form. Because of the complicated expressions of the integrands involved, we consider only certain limiting cases which correspond to small and large times from the start of the motion, compared to the average time between molecular collisions. In order to study these limiting cases, it is essential to understand the behavior of the integrand in the complex plane; hence all singularities and branch points are obtained. When t is small, the integrand is expanded in powers of t to obtain a wave front approximation. All discontinuities are propagated along the characteristics of the linearized system, and a damping term also appears. At large values of time, the integrand gets its main contribution around the branch points, and these solutions are identical to those obtained from the Navier-Stokes equation. The fundamental solution of the one-dimensional unsteady flow, idealized as it seems to be, offers itself as a tool to understand other related problems. The piston problem, as well as the normal quantities in Rayleigh's problem (e. g., normal velocity, normal stress, and thermodynamical quantities), are governed by the same set of equations. Hence, certain parts of the fundamental solutions can be applied directly to these problems. The limiting forms of the normal quantities in Rayleigh's problem are expected to be worked out in another paper in the near future.


Item Type:Report or Paper (Technical Report)
Additional Information:Army Ordnance Contract No. DA-04-495-Ord-1960.
Group:Hypersonic Research Project
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
U.S. Army Office of OrdnanceDA-04-495-Ord-1960
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20151104-170004041
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20151104-170004041
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:61867
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Kristin Buxton
Deposited On:05 Nov 2015 02:36
Last Modified:05 Nov 2015 02:36

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