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The detection rate of early UV emission from supernovae: A dedicated GALEX/PTF survey and calibrated theoretical estimates

Ganot, Noam and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Ofek, Eran O. and Sagiv, Ilan and Waxman, Eli and Lapid, Ofer and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Ben-Ami, Sagi and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Chelouche, Doron and Rafter, Stephen and Behar, Ehud and Laor, Ari and Poznanski, Dovi and Nakar, Udi and Maoz, Dan and Trakhtenbrot, Benny and Neill, James D. and Barlow, Thomas A. and Martin, D. Christopher and Gezari, Suvi and Arcavi, Iair and Bloom, Joshua S. and Nugent, Peter E. and Sullivan, Mark (2016) The detection rate of early UV emission from supernovae: A dedicated GALEX/PTF survey and calibrated theoretical estimates. Astrophysical Journal, 820 (1). Art. No. 57. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/820/1/57.

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The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early UV emission from SNe. Six Type II SNe and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX NUV data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500R_⊙, explosion energies of 10^(51) erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M_⊙. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf-Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition and explosion energy per unit mass of such SN events, and we demonstrate why UV observations are critical for such measurements. We use the fiducial RSG parameters to estimate the detection rate of SNe during the shock-cooling phase (< 1 d after explosion) for several ground-based surveys (PTF, ZTF, and LSST). We show that the proposed wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission, is expected to find > 100 SNe per year (~ 0.5 SN per deg^2), independent of host galaxy extinction, down to an NUV detection limit of 21.5mag AB. Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus convincingly demonstrates that a dedicated, systematic SN survey at the NUV band is a compelling method to study how massive stars end their life.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Waxman, Eli0000-0002-9038-5877
Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Ben-Ami, Sagi0000-0001-6760-3074
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Trakhtenbrot, Benny0000-0002-3683-7297
Neill, James D.0000-0002-0466-1119
Martin, D. Christopher0000-0002-8650-1644
Gezari, Suvi0000-0003-3703-5154
Arcavi, Iair0000-0001-7090-4898
Bloom, Joshua S.0000-0002-7777-216X
Nugent, Peter E.0000-0002-3389-0586
Sullivan, Mark0000-0001-9053-4820
Additional Information:© 2016. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 December 19. Accepted 2016 February 4. Published 2016 March 17. This research was supported by grants from the Israeli Space Agency (ISA) and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Space (MOS). Additional funding was provided by the EU via ERC grant 307260, the ISF, and a Kimmel award.
Group:Palomar Transient Factory, Space Astrophysics Laboratory, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Israeli Space AgencyUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science, Technology and Space (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)307260
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:supernovae: general
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20151207-145315969
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Noam Ganot et al 2016 ApJ 820 57
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:62660
Deposited On:08 Dec 2015 21:15
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 23:05

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