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National carbon emissions from the industry process: Production of glass, soda ash, ammonia, calcium carbide and alumina

Liu, Zhu (2016) National carbon emissions from the industry process: Production of glass, soda ash, ammonia, calcium carbide and alumina. Applied Energy, 166 . pp. 239-244. ISSN 0306-2619. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.11.005.

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China has become the world’s largest carbon emitter. Its total carbon emission output from fossil fuel combustion and cement production was approximately 10 Gt CO_2 in 2013. However, less is known about carbon emissions from the production of industrial materials, such as mineral products (e.g., lime, soda ash, asphalt roofing), chemical products (e.g., ammonia, nitric acid) and metal products (e.g., iron, steel and aluminum). Carbon emissions from the production processes of these industrial products (in addition to cement production) are also less frequently reported by current international carbon emission datasets. Here we estimated the carbon emissions resulting from the manufacturing of 5 major industrial products in China, given China’s dominant position in industrial production in the world. Based on an investigation of China’s specific production processes, we devised a methodology for calculating emission factors. The results indicate that China’s total carbon emission from the production of alumina, plate glass, soda ash, ammonia and calcium carbide was 233 million tons in 2013, equivalent to the total CO_2 emissions of Spain in 2013. The cumulative emissions from the manufacturing of these 5 products during the period 1990–2013 was approximately 2.5 Gt CO_2, more than the annual total CO_2 emissions of India. Thus, quantifying the emissions from industrial processes is critical for understanding the global carbon budget and developing a suitable climate policy.

Item Type:Article
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Liu, Zhu0000-0002-8968-7050
Additional Information:© 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( Received 10 February 2015, Revised 2 November 2015, Accepted 4 November 2015, Available online 11 December 2015. Zhu Liu acknowledges the National Natural Science Foundation of China – NSFC 41501605, the Resnick Prize Postdoctoral Fellowship and support from Resnick Sustainability Institute.
Group:Resnick Sustainability Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaNSFC 41501605
Resnick Sustainability InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:China; CO_2; Industrial process; Climate policy
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20151221-130933227
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Official Citation:Zhu Liu, National carbon emissions from the industry process: Production of glass, soda ash, ammonia, calcium carbide and alumina, Applied Energy, Volume 166, 15 March 2016, Pages 239-244, ISSN 0306-2619, (
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:63106
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:22 Dec 2015 19:20
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 23:11

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