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Gypsy/Ty3-class retrotransposons integrated in the DNA of herring, tunicate, and echinoderms

Britten, Roy J. and McCormack, Thomas J. and Mears, Tamara L. and Davidson, Eric H. (1995) Gypsy/Ty3-class retrotransposons integrated in the DNA of herring, tunicate, and echinoderms. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 40 (1). pp. 13-24. ISSN 0022-2844. doi:10.1007/BF00166592.

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Eight new examples of retrotransposons of the Gypsy/Ty3 class have been identified in marine species. A 525-nt pol gene-coding region was amplified using degenerate primers from highly conserved regions and has extended the range of recognition of Gypsy/Ty3 far beyond those previously known. The following matrix shows the percentage AA divergence of the translations of this segment of the pol gene coding region. Spr2 Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, sea urchin 39 Por2 Pisaster ochraceus, starfish 46 45 Cprl Clupea pallasi, herring 51 52 41 Cirl Ciona intestinalis, tunicate bar52 49 49 55 P. orchraceus, starfish 55 60 60 62 62 Spr3 S. purpuratus, sea urchin 55 61 60 63 61 24 Tgrl* Tripneustes gratilla, sea urchin 56 61 60 63 58 26 27 Lvrl* Lytechinus variegatus, sea urchin 57 62 60 64 62 27 10 29 Sprl* S. purpuratus 58 61 62 65 61 15 27 30 31 Spr4 S. purpuratus 72 72 74 75 72 73 72 72 73 72 Por3 P. ochraceus The underlines separate three groups of retrotransposons that can be recognized on the basis of this amino acid sequence. The new upper group shows surprising amino acid sequence similarity among members from the DNA of herring, sea urchin, starfish, and a tunicate. For example, the herring element differs by only 41 % from the Ciona element and 46% from the sea urchin element. The group between the lines includes members close to previously known elements (marked by asterisks) and has so far been found only in sea urchins. The two upper groups differ from each other by 55–60% and yet members of both groups (e.g., Sprl and Spr2) are integrated into the DNA of one species-S. purpuratus. Below the lower underline is listed the only known representative of a very distant group, which occurs in starfish DNA. In spite of large divergence, amino acid sequence comparisons indicate that all of the elements shown in the array are members of the LTR-containing class of retrotransposons that includes Gypsy of Drosophila and Ty3 of yeast. Of all known mobile elements this class shows the closest sequence similarity to retroviruses and has the same arrangement of genes as simpler retroviruses.

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Additional Information:© 1995 Springer. Received: 23 April 1994 / Accepted: 27 June 1994. We thank Michael Smith of Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, for the gift of starfish genomic libraries. Mark Springer sequenced the complete L. variegatus and nearly complete S. purpuratus elements, as yet unpublished. The work was supported by grants from ONR and NIH.
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Office of Naval Research (ONR)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Repeated sequences; Transposons; Retrovirus; Bony fish; Ciona
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20151222-135249234
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:63149
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:29 Jan 2016 21:06
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 23:12

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