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Null Double Injection and the Extra Element Theorem

Middlebrook, R. D. (1989) Null Double Injection and the Extra Element Theorem. IEEE Transactions on Education, 32 (3). pp. 167-180. ISSN 0018-9359. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20151224-110234507

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Abstract

The extra element theorem (EET) states that any transfer function of a linear system can be expressed in terms of its value when a given “extra” element is absent, and a correction factor involving the extra element and two driving point impedances seen by the element. One class of applications is when a system has already been analyzed and later an extra element is to be added to the model: the EET avoids the analysis having to be restarted from scratch. Another class of applications is when a system is to be analyzed for the first time: if one element is designated as “extra,” the analysis can be performed on the simpler model in the absence of the designated element, and the result modified by the EET correction factor upon restoration of the “extra” element. Although the EET itself is not new, its interpretation and application appear to be little known. In this paper, the EET is derived and applied to several examples in a manner that has been developed and refined in the classroom over a number of years. The concept of “null double injection” is introduced first, because it is the key to making easy the calculation of the two driving point impedances needed for the EET correction factor.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/13.34149DOIArticle
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=34149PublisherArticle
Additional Information:© 1989 IEEE. Manuscript received October 20, 1988.
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20151224-110234507
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20151224-110234507
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:63233
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Kristin Buxton
Deposited On:24 Dec 2015 19:17
Last Modified:24 Dec 2015 19:17

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