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Aggregate particles in the plumes of Enceladus

Gao, Peter and Kopparla, Pushkar and Zhang, Xi and Ingersoll, Andrew P. (2016) Aggregate particles in the plumes of Enceladus. Icarus, 264 . pp. 227-238. ISSN 0019-1035. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160104-090602079

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Abstract

Estimates of the total particulate mass of the plumes of Enceladus are important to constrain theories of particle formation and transport at the surface and interior of the satellite. We revisit the calculations of Ingersoll and Ewald (Ingersoll, A.P., Ewald, S.P. [2011]. Icarus 216(2), 492–506), who estimated the particulate mass of the Enceladus plumes from strongly forward scattered light in Cassini ISS images. We model the plume as a combination of spherical particles and irregular aggregates resulting from the coagulation of spherical monomers, the latter of which allows for plumes of lower particulate mass. Though a continuum of solutions are permitted by the model, the best fits to the ISS data consist either of low mass plumes composed entirely of small aggregates or high mass plumes composed of mostly spheres. The high particulate mass plumes have total particulate masses of (166 ± 42) × 10^3 kg, consistent with the results of Ingersoll and Ewald (Ingersoll, A.P., Ewald, S.P. [2011]. Icarus 216(2), 492–506). The low particulate mass plumes have masses of (25 ± 4) × 10^3 kg, leading to a solid to vapor mass ratio of 0.07 ± 0.01 for the plume. If indeed the plumes are made of such aggregates, then a vapor-based origin for the plume particles cannot be ruled out. Finally, we show that the residence time of the monomers inside the plume vents is sufficiently long for Brownian coagulation to form the aggregates before they are ejected to space.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2015.09.030DOIArticle
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103515004443PublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Kopparla, Pushkar0000-0002-8951-3907
Ingersoll, Andrew P.0000-0002-2035-9198
Additional Information:© 2015 Elsevier Inc. Received 2 June 2015; Revised 4 September 2015; Accepted 23 September 2015; Available online 9 October 2015. We thank Y.L. Yung and H. Ngo for their valuable input. P. Gao and P. Kopparla were supported in part by an NAI Virtual Planetary Laboratory grant from the University of Washington to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology under solicitation NNH12ZDA002C and Cooperative Agreement Number NNA13AA93A. X. Zhang was supported by the Bisgrove Scholar Program at the University of Arizona. A.P. Ingersoll was supported by the Cassini Project and NASA’s Cassini Data Analysis Program.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
University of WashingtonUNSPECIFIED
NASANNH12ZDA002C
NASANNA13AA93A
University of ArizonaUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Enceladus; Ices; Photometry; Radiative transfer; Satellites, surfaces
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160104-090602079
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160104-090602079
Official Citation:Peter Gao, Pushkar Kopparla, Xi Zhang, Andrew P. Ingersoll, Aggregate particles in the plumes of Enceladus, Icarus, Volume 264, 15 January 2016, Pages 227-238, ISSN 0019-1035, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2015.09.030. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103515004443)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:63317
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:04 Jan 2016 17:31
Last Modified:15 Nov 2017 00:48

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