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SOFIA/FORCAST Observations of Warm Dust in S106: A Fragmented Environment

Adams, J. D. and Herter, T. L. and Hora, J. L. and Schneider, N. and Lau, R. M. and Staguhn, J. G. and Simon, R. and Smith, N. and Gehrz, R. D. and Allen, L. E. and Bontemps, S. and Carey, S. J. and Fazio, G. G. and Gutermuth, R. A. and Guzman Fernandez, A. and Hankins, M. and Hill, T. and Keto, E. and Koenig, X. P. and Kraemer, K. E. and Megeath, S. T. and Mizuno, D. R. and Motte, F. and Myers, P. C. and Smith, H. A. (2015) SOFIA/FORCAST Observations of Warm Dust in S106: A Fragmented Environment. Astrophysical Journal, 814 (1). Art. No. 54. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We present mid-IR (19–37 μm) imaging observations of S106 from SOFIA/FORCAST, complemented with IR observations from Spitzer/IRAC (3.6–8.0 μm), IRTF/MIRLIN (11.3 and 12.5 μm), and Herschel/PACS (70 and 160 μm). We use these observations, observations in the literature, and radiation transfer modeling to study the heating and composition of the warm (~100 K) dust in the region. The dust is heated radiatively by the source S106 IR, with little contributions from grain–electron collisions and Lyα radiation. The dust luminosity is ≳(9.02 ± 1.01) × 10^4 L_⊙, consistent with heating by a mid- to late-type O star. We find a temperature gradient (~75–107 K) in the lobes, which is consistent with a dusty equatorial geometry around S106 IR. Furthermore, the SOFIA observations resolve several cool (~65–70 K) lanes and pockets of warmer (~75–90 K) dust in the ionization shadow, indicating that the environment is fragmented. We model the dust mass as a composition of amorphous silicates, amorphous carbon, big grains, very small grains, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We present the relative abundances of each grain component for several locations in S106.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Adams, J. D.0000-0001-7645-8913
Herter, T. L.0000-0002-3856-8385
Hora, J. L.0000-0002-5599-4650
Staguhn, J. G.0000-0002-8437-0433
Gehrz, R. D.0000-0003-1319-4089
Carey, S. J.0000-0002-0221-6871
Fazio, G. G.0000-0002-0670-0708
Gutermuth, R. A.0000-0002-6447-899X
Hankins, M.0000-0001-9315-8437
Megeath, S. T.0000-0001-7629-3573
Additional Information:© 2015 American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 April 28; accepted 2015 October 14; published 2015 November 17. We thank the SOFIA ground crew, flight crew, and Mission Operations for their successful execution of the SOFIA observations. We also thank an anonymous referee for making suggestions that led to the improvement of this paper. This work is based on observations made with the NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). SOFIA science mission operations are conducted jointly by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901. Financial support for FORCAST was provided to Cornell by NASA through award 8500-98-014 issued by USRA. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL/Caltech under NASA contract 1407. This work is based in part on observations made with Herschel, a European Space Agency Cornerstone Mission with significant participation by NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. R.D.G. acknowledges support from NASA and the United States Air Force. Facilities: Spitzer - Spitzer Space Telescope satellite, SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy, Herschel - European Space Agency's Herschel space observatory.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI)DLR 50 OK 0901
Subject Keywords:circumstellar matter, H II regions, infrared: stars, radiative transfer, stars: formation
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160105-112842026
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:J. D. Adams et al 2015 ApJ 814 54
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:63379
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:05 Jan 2016 19:53
Last Modified:01 Nov 2019 20:34

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