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Sea urchin Forkhead gene family: Phylogeny and embryonic expression

Tu, Qiang and Brown, C. Titus and Davidson, Eric H. and Oliveri, Paola (2006) Sea urchin Forkhead gene family: Phylogeny and embryonic expression. Developmental Biology, 300 (1). pp. 49-62. ISSN 0012-1606.

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Transcription factors of the Forkhead (Fox) family have been identified in many metazoans, and play important roles in diverse biological processes. Here we define the set of fox genes present in the sea urchin genome, and survey their usage during development. This genome includes 22 fox genes, only three of which were previously known. Of the 23 fox gene subclasses identified in vertebrate genomes, the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome has orthologues of all but four (E, H, R and S). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that one S. purpuratus fox gene is equally related to foxA and foxB of vertebrates; this gene defines a new class. Two other genes appear to be specific to the sea urchin, with respect to the genomes so far sequenced. Fox genes orthologous with those of vertebrates but lacking in arthropod or nematode genomes may be deuterostome-specific (subclasses I, J1, J2, L1, M and Q1), while the majority are pan-bilaterian. All but one of the S. purpuratus fox genes (SpfoxQ1) are expressed during embryogenesis, most in a very specific temporal and spatial manner. The sea urchin fox genes clearly execute many different regulatory functions, and almost all of them participate in the process of embryonic development.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Brown, C. Titus0000-0001-6001-2677
Additional Information:© 2006 Elsevier Inc. Received for publication 31 May 2006; revised 14 September 2006; accepted 15 September 2006. Available online 22 September 2006. We thank Leha Vega for helping with the QPCR and Dr. T. Minokawa for the initial help with WMISH. We are also grateful to Dr. J. Nam for the critical support of phylogenetic analysis. This research was supported by NIH grant HD37105 and by the Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy, grant DE-FG02-03ER63584. P. Oliveri was supported by the Camilla Chandler Frost Fellowship.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FG02-03ER63584
Camilla Chandler Frost FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Forkhead; Fkh; Fox; Sea urchin; Genome; Embryo
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160121-135401869
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Official Citation:Qiang Tu, C. Titus Brown, Eric H. Davidson, Paola Oliveri, Sea urchin Forkhead gene family: Phylogeny and embryonic expression, Developmental Biology, Volume 300, Issue 1, 1 December 2006, Pages 49-62, ISSN 0012-1606, (
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:63851
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:22 Jan 2016 17:08
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 09:32

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