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A Systematic Study of Mid-Infrared Emission from Core-Collapse Supernovae with SPIRITS

Tinyanont, Samaporn and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Fox, Ori D. and Lau, Ryan and Smith, Nathan and Williams, Robert and Jencson, Jacob and Perley, Daniel and Dykhoff, Devin and Gehrz, Robert and Johansson, Joel and Van Dyk, Schuyler D. and Masci, Frank and Cody, Ann Marie and Prince, Tom (2016) A Systematic Study of Mid-Infrared Emission from Core-Collapse Supernovae with SPIRITS. Astrophysical Journal, 833 (2). Art. No. 231. ISSN 0004-637X.

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We present a systematic study of mid-infrared emission from 141 nearby supernovae (SNe) observed with Spitzer/IRAC as part of the ongoing SPIRITS survey. We detect 8 Type Ia and 36 core-collapse SNe. All Type Ia/Ibc SNe become undetectable within three years of explosion, whereas 22 ± 11% of Type II SNe continue to be detected. Five Type II SNe are detected even two decades after discovery (SN 1974E, 1979C, 1980K, 1986J, and 1993J). Warm dust luminosity, temperature, and a lower limit on mass are obtained by fitting the two IRAC bands, assuming an optically thin dust shell. We derive warm dust masses between 10^(−6) and 10^(−2) M⊙ and dust color temperatures between 200 and 1280 K. This observed warm dust could be pre-existing or newly created, but in either case represents a lower limit to the dust mass because cooler dust may be present. We present three case studies of extreme SNe. SN 2011ja (II-P) was over-luminous ([4.5] = −15.6 mag) at 900 days post explosion with increasing hot dust mass, suggesting either an episode of dust formation or intensifying circumstellar material (CSM) interactions heating up pre-existing dust. SN 2014bi (II-P) showed a factor of 10 decrease in dust mass over one month, suggesting either dust destruction or reduced dust heating. The IR luminosity of SN 2014C (Ib) stayed constant over 800 days, possibly due to strong CSM interaction with an H-rich shell, which is rare among stripped-envelope SNe. The observations suggest that this CSM shell originated from an LBV-like eruption roughly 100 years pre-explosion. The observed diversity demonstrates the power of mid-IR observations of a large sample of SNe.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Tinyanont, Samaporn0000-0002-1481-4676
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Fox, Ori D.0000-0003-2238-1572
Jencson, Jacob0000-0001-5754-4007
Perley, Daniel0000-0001-8472-1996
Gehrz, Robert0000-0003-1319-4089
Johansson, Joel0000-0001-5975-290X
Van Dyk, Schuyler D.0000-0001-9038-9950
Masci, Frank0000-0002-8532-9395
Cody, Ann Marie0000-0002-3656-6706
Prince, Tom0000-0002-8850-3627
Additional Information:© 2016 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2016 January 12; revised 2016 November 1; accepted 2016 November 5; published 2016 December 20. This work made use of observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. We acknowledge the use of some data from PIDs 70207 (PI Helou); 80239 and 90178 (PI Andrews); 10139 (PI Fox); and 10046 (PI Sanders). Ground-based observations presented were obtained at the Palomar Observatory, operated by California Institute of Technology. The Mount Lemmon Observing Facility is operated by the University of Minnesota. The Nordic Optical Telescope is operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. We are grateful for support from the NASA Spitzer mission grants to the SPIRITS program (PIDs 10136 & 11063). This research made use of Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy Astropy Collaboration et al. (2013). We thank the anonymous referee for comments and suggestions. S.T. thanks Bill Scanlon for a close read of the manuscript. S.T. was supported by the Royal Thai Scholarship and a portion of this work was done while under the Claremont-Carnegie Astrophysics Research Program. R.D.G. was supported by NASA and the United States Air Force.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Royal Thai ScholarshipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:supernovae: general – supernovae: individual (SN 2011ja, SN 2014C, SN 2014bi)
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160126-083711618
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Samaporn Tinyanont et al 2016 ApJ 833 231
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:63959
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:26 Jan 2016 18:37
Last Modified:19 Nov 2019 22:55

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