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Type II supernova energetics and comparison of light curves to shock-cooling models

Rubin, Adam and Kulkarni, S. R. and Perley, Daniel A. and Cao, Yi (2016) Type II supernova energetics and comparison of light curves to shock-cooling models. Astrophysical Journal, 820 (1). Art. No. 33. ISSN 0004-637X.

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During the first few days after explosion, Type II supernovae (SNe) are dominated by relatively simple physics. Theoretical predictions regarding early-time SN light curves in the ultraviolet (UV) and optical bands are thus quite robust. We present, for the first time, a sample of 57 R-band Type II SN light curves that are well monitored during their rise, having > 5 detections during the first 10 days after discovery, and a well-constrained time of explosion to within 1-3 days. We show that the energy per unit mass (E/M) can be deduced to roughly a factor of five by comparing early-time optical data to the model of Rabinak & Waxman (2011), while the progenitor radius cannot be determined based on R-band data alone. We find that Type II SN explosion energies span a range of E/M = (0.2-20)x10^(51) erg/(10 M_☉), and have a mean energy per unit mass of 〈E/M〉 = 0.85x10^(51)erg/(10 M_☉), corrected for Malmquist bias. Assuming a small spread in progenitor masses, this indicates a large intrinsic diversity in explosion energy. Moreover, E/M is positively correlated with the amount of ^(56)Ni produced in the explosion, as predicted by some recent models of core-collapse SNe. We further present several empirical correlations. The peak magnitude is correlated with the decline rate (Δm_(15)), the decline rate is weakly correlated with the rise time, and the rise time is not significantly correlated with the peak magnitude. Faster declining SNe are more luminous and have longer rise times. This limits the possible power sources for such events.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Rubin, Adam0000-0003-4557-0632
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Cao, Yi0000-0002-8036-8491
Additional Information:© 2016 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2015 September 7; accepted 2015 November 23; published 2016 March 16. We thank E. Waxman for helpful discussions. We are grateful to the staffs at the many observatories where data for this study were collected (Palomar, Lick, Keck, etc.). We thank J. Silverman, G. Duggan, A. Miller, A. Waszczak, E. Bellm, K. Mooley, J. Van Roestel, A. Cucchiara, R. J. Foley, M. T. Kandrashoff, B. Sesar, I. Shivvers, J. S. Bloom, D. Xu, J. Surace, and L. Magill for helping with some of the observations and data reduction. Specifically for assistance with the MLO observations, we acknowledge N. Duong, T. Fetherolf, S. Brunker, R. Dixon, and A. Rachubo. A.G.Y. is supported by the EU/FP7 via ERC grant no. 307260, the Quantum Universe I-CORE Program by the Israeli Committee for Planning and Budgeting and the Israel Science Foundation (ISF); by Minerva and ISF grants; by the Weizmann-UK "making connections" program; and by Kimmel and ARCHES awards. E.O.O. is incumbent of the Arye Dissentshik career development chair and is grateful for support by grants from the Willner Family Leadership Institute Ilan Gluzman (Secaucus, NJ), ISF, Minerva, Weizmann-UK, and the I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and the ISF. M.S. acknowledges support from the Royal Society and EU/FP7-ERC grant no [615929]. K.M. is grateful for a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship, within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (FP7). D.C.L., S.F.A., J.C.H., and J.M.F. are supported by NSF grants AST-1009571 and AST-1210311, under which part of this research (photometry data collected at MLO) was carried out. The supernova research of A.V.F.'s group at U.C. Berkeley presented herein is supported by Gary & Cynthia Bengier, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, and NSF grant AST-1211916. Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA; the observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The William Herschel Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. This research has made use of the APASS database, located at the AAVSO web site. Funding for APASS has been provided by the Robert Martin Ayers Sciences Fund. A portion of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a Research and Technology Development Grant, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2015 California Institute of Technology. All Rights Reserved. US Government Support Acknowledged. LANL participation in iPTF is supported by the US Department of Energy as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.
Group:Palomar Transient Factory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)307260
Quantum Universe I-Core programUNSPECIFIED
Israeli Committee for Planning and BudgetingUNSPECIFIED
Israel Science Foundation (ISF)UNSPECIFIED
Willner Family Leadership Institute Ilan GluzmanUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)615929
Marie Curie Intra-European FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Gary and Cynthia BengierUNSPECIFIED
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Robert Martin Ayers Sciences FundUNSPECIFIED
JPL Research and Technology Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:supernovae: general
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160126-092427530
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Adam Rubin et al 2016 ApJ 820 33
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:63963
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:26 Jan 2016 18:30
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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